It is true that high-quality data for inferring this species’ population status is completely lacking, hindering any rigorous evaluation of its risk of extinction based on criteria A and C. This is, however, a rare species that likely occurs in low numbers wherever is present, and exhibits a disjunct distribution (Rodríguez-Mahecha & Hernández-Camacho 2002). A different subspecies is found in each of the three Colombian Andean ranges, and each one of them is being affected by severe deforestation (Botero-Delgadillo & Páez 2011). The species range map shown in Annex 2 is likely an optimistic overestimation of its current distribution, as its habitat has been transformed and fragmented throughout its entire range. It is estimated that the species has lost ~60% of its original habitat in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2016).
The major threat for this species is still habitat loss (Renjifo et al. 2016). It is estimated that 20% of its potential distribution in Colombia is represented within protected areas, which is below the goal of 40% (Velásquez-Tibatá & López-Arévalo 2006, Botero-Delgadillo & Páez 2011). Moving this species to LC would not reflect the species’ current situation, which is far from ideal given the available information. I strongly recommend listing this parrot as NT.
Just forgot to include a reference list for my comment, which I now include below:
** Botero-Delgadillo, E. & C. A. Páez (2011). Estado actual del conocimiento y conservación de los loros amenazados de Colombia. Conservación Colombiana 14: 86–151.
** Renjifo, L. M., A. M. Amaya-Villarreal, J. Burbano-Girón, and J. Velásquez-Tibatá (Editors) (2016). Libro rojo de las aves de Colombia vol. II: especies acuáticas de ecosistemas abiertos y secos, tierras altas del Darién, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta e insulares. Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and Instituto de investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá, Colombia.
** Rodríguez–Mahecha, J. V. & J. I. Hernández–Camacho (2002) Loros de Colombia. Conservación Internacional. Bogotá, Colombia.
** Sanabria-Mejía, J. and A. Mayorquín-Cabrera (2016). Hapalopsittaca amazonina. In Libro rojo de las aves de Colombia vol. II: especies acuáticas de ecosistemas abiertos y secos, tierras altas del Darién, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta e insulares (L. M. Renjifo, A. M. Amaya-Villarreal, J. Burbano-Girón, and J. Velásquez-Tibatá, Editors). Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and Instituto de investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá, Colombia.
** Velásquez–Tibatá, J. I. & H. F. López–Arévalo (2006) Análisis de omisiones y prioridades de conservación para loros amenazados de Colombia. Conservación Colombiana 1: 58–66.
Based on experience in Colombia and Venezuela (I have never seen it in Ecuador), I would be very surprised if this species could be assessed as LC or even NT. For the latter country there appears to be a discrepancy between the Global Forest Watch data cited above and previous studies. By 1988, habitat loss in the Venezuelan Andes was described as “dramatic” by Collar et al. (1992), mainly below 2000 m, but with some reduction in cloud forest extent (Huber & Alarcón 1988, Collar et al. 1992). In the 22 subsequent years between 1988 and 2010 the area covered by cloud forest in Mérida State fell by more than half according to Oliveira-Miranda et al. (2010), and Mérida cloud forests are classed as Critically Endangered ecosystems under IUCN criteria (Rodríguez et al. 2010). Since ssp. theresae is restricted to this type of vegetation, its population has long been presumed to be declining due to deforestation and fragmentation of remaining forest. A similar panorama would apply to ssp. amazonina in Tamá. It is hard to imagine the situation having improved over the past decade, given the disappearance of the environment ministry and general lack of institutional capacity. The species is listed as EN for Venezuela, and my old estimate of fewer than 1000 individuals in Venezuela seems optimistic today. Definitely a species of conservation concern.
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