Archived 2011-2012 topics: Lesser Florican (Sypheotides indicus): request for information

Initial deadline for comments: 31 January 2012.

BirdLife species factsheet for Lesser Florican

Lesser Florican Sypheotides indicus now breeds in a restricted and fragmented range mainly in north-west and south-central India, including Gujarat, south-eastern Rajasthan, north-western Maharshtra, western Madhya Pradesh, north-central Andhra Pradesh and southern Nepal (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005), but occurs more widely, with some dispersal into south-eastern India in the non-breeding season. It is currently listed as Endangered under criteria A3c,d; A4c,d, on the basis that it is projected to undergo a very rapid decline (50-79%) over the next ten years owing to the on-going loss of its grassland habitats, mainly through conversion to cultivation and pasture, as well as hunting pressure.

A survey conducted in August 2010 (coinciding with a peak in male displays) in north-western India (Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh) (Bhardwaj et al. 2011), which followed methodology comparable to that of a survey in 1999 (Sankaran 2000), recorded a decline of 65% in the sightings of S. indicus since 1999. A total of 84 birds (including one female) were recorded during the 2010 survey, down from 238 in 1999. The species was recorded in only 24 of the 91 grasslands surveyed, compared to its presence in 37 grasslands in 1999 (Bhardwaj et al. 2011). Extrapolation of the apparent decline in this region between 1999 and 2010 suggests that it is equivalent to a decline of c.94% over the last three generations (1981-2012, based on an estimated generation length of c.10.3 years; BirdLife International unpubl. data).

Extrapolating so far into the past involves inherent uncertainties; however, the threats that have been impacting the species since 1999 have been prevalent since 1981 and before. The species is known to experience marked population fluctuations that are directly correlated with breeding season rainfall patterns, suggesting that it would be susceptible to a catastrophic decline during a severe and prolonged drought. This suggests that the 2010 survey results were affected by severe drought conditions that occurred in many parts of India in 2009, when the monsoon rains were delayed. It is unclear, however, whether the 2010 data indicate a genuine reduction in the population, or movement to other areas.

Information on recent population trends is requested from other parts of the species’s range to help in the assessment of the overall rate of decline. Further information is also requested on the total number of mature individuals in the population, as well as the species’s sub-population structure, i.e. whether all mature individuals form one sub-population or, if not, the number of mature individuals in the largest sub-population. For the purposes of the IUCN criteria, sub-populations are defined as geographically or otherwise distinct groups between which there is little or no demographic or genetic exchange, i.e. typically one successful migrant per year or less.


Bhardwaj, G. S., Sivakumar, K. and Jhala, Y. V. (2011) Status, distribution and conservation perspectives of Lesser Florican in the North-Western India: A Survey Report. Wildlife Institute of India.

Rasmussen, P. C. and Anderton, J. C. (2005) Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Vols. 1 and 2. Washington, D.C. and Barcelona, Spain: Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions.

Sankaran, R. (2000) The status of the Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica in 1999. Coimbatore, India: Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology & Natural History/Bombay Natural History Society.

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11 Responses to Archived 2011-2012 topics: Lesser Florican (Sypheotides indicus): request for information

  1. Dr. S. Subramanya and M. Raghavendra says:

    A single female Lesser Florican was seen in North Bangalore, India on December 18th and again on December 24th 2011 in a dry grassland of about in extant. The average height of the grass is about 45cm. and the grassland is mixed with Stachytarpheta indica, Lantana camara and Parthenium hysterophorus and dominated by scattered growth of tall Prosopis juliflora bushes.
    The last sighting of this endangered endemic bustard in Bangalore was by Lieut. Col. R. M. Betham of the 101st Grenadiers in a scrub forest with scattered paddy fields, on December 14, 1911, while he was on a snipe shoot with Captain W. B. Roberts of 101st Grenadiers. The bird was promptly brought to bag along with a Wood Snipe (Gallinago nemoricola) and several Pintail Snipes (Gallinago stenura).

    REFERENCE: Betham, R. M. 1912. Wood snipe (Gallinago nemoricola) occurring near Bangalore. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 21: 677.

  2. Praveen J says:

    From Kerala, SW India – there has been only stray reports of this bird and it is believed that Kerala does not fall in its winter habitat. 3 live birds recovered in 1876, 1990 & 1996 – and despite the increase in birding fraternity – there has been no reports since 1996. Probably, the global population has declined and hence a decline in stray sightings.
    Ref: C Sashikumar, Praveen J, Muhamed Jafer Palot & P O Nameer (2011) Birds of Kerala: Status & Distributon

  3. Pramod Patil says:

    In 2003 one male (Non-breeding ) was found injured in Ambap At Kolhapur District in Maharashtra.
    The bird was having injury on right wing and was exhausted
    It was rescued from butcher and then was taken care by me with regular check up of injured part.
    Insects were fed during the period and then it was released at Ozar grasslands in Nashik District of Maharashtra.
    Release was done by Maharashtra Forest Department.

  4. Pramod Patil says:

    Breeding population in Maharashtra.

    Very less is known about the breeding population in Maharashtra.
    There exists a breeding population of about 25-30 breeding pairs in Akola District of Maharashtra.
    Previously the major threat to this population was hunting and their was large scale population collapse in the region.
    The change in land use pattern was one more major contributor to its decline.
    Thanks to efforts taken by Local NGO called ‘Samvedana’ the poacher community called ‘Paradhi’ has now became the protector of the species.
    Local people are now engaged in conservation of not only breeding birds but also the habitat.
    There is immense need to undertake satellite monitoring for its local movement.

  5. Pramod Patil says:

    Non-breeding record of Lesser Florican (Female) in Maharashtra state.

    In Feb 2007 one female (non-breeding) was found exhausted in karmala grassland area of Great Indian Bustard sanctuary (Solapur district) in Maharashtra state in India.
    It was kept in feeding in captivity for few days and then was released at Nannaj grassland (in Feb 2007) area of the same sanctuary.
    There is immense need of conservation of not only breeding abut also non-breeding areas for the survival of the species.

  6. Pramod Patil says:

    Conservation of Lesser Florican : Community Based Conservation (CBC)

    Lesser Florican is concerned there are only two existing sanctuaries in India – Sailana and Sardarpur, both in Madhya Pradesh. Many individuals still lie outside Protected Areas and its movement over a vast landscape is relatively unpredictable. conservation of grassland species such as Lesser Florican can be tied up with grassland management and community benefits.
    However, there is lack of integration between florican conservation and grassland development especially in states like Gujarat and Rajasthan where livestock husbandry is a major occupation of the rural people and there is terrific demand for natural fodder.
    A network of fodder producing grasslands is required throughout its breeding range, thus serving the dual purpose of ensuring fodder security to agrarian communities as well as providing optimal habitats during the monsoons for the Lesser Florican and other grassland species to breed in.
    It breeds exclusively in undisturbed grasslands or low height crops such as Sorghum, Millet and Maize. Lesser Florican is not confined to Protected Area as it changes its breeding place according to the monsoon pattern of the region, and because of unpredictability of it’s movement it is difficult to conserve it just on the basis of particular Protected Area. If we are able to create a network of fodder producing grasslands throughout its breeding range, then it will serve the dual purpose of ensuring fodder security for livestock as well as providing optimal breeding habitats for the Lesser Florican and other associated species. Certain community handled management practices if modified would serve Leseer Florican a better habitat delaying grass cutting by a week or leaving a small patch of the grassland uncut, pre-fledged chicks of the floricans and other species such as francolins and quails can also be saved. However, before we start any intervention for their protection, proper scientific studies and planning have to be undertaken. All the grasslands which are handled by community (e.g. Vidis and Bheeds) can be protected with active involvement of local people. There is immense need to explore other community sectors that can be actively involved in Florican conservation.

  7. Pramod Patil says:

    “Need to start Project Bustard”

    The grasslands are the most under-represented ecosystems in the protected area network in our country. Studies conducted by the Wildlife Institute of India, Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History and by the Bombay Natural History Society have identified many potential areas which could be developed as sanctuaries, or community conservation areas. Additionally, many existing sanctuaries need expansion to make them more viable and\or need active habitat and human management. As these existing\potential sanctuaries occur in different states, the degree of management and protection varies from area to area depending upon the interest and inclination of the state governments. There are many reasons to have a nationally coordinated conservation project for the Indian bustards and their habitats.

    1) Need for cooperation: Each state is taking its own course of action to conserve bustards without knowing what the other states are doing. There is
    no cooperation among the states even though the bustards and floricans may be moving from one state to another. In some cases, officials of one state do not even know that the same bustard species is found in other states also!

    2) Publicity: After the initial enthusiasm to protect bustard species in the 1980s, presently there is practically no interest to protect them as a result of
    which most of the bustard sanctuaries are neglected (e.g. Karera, Ghatigaon, Sardarpur, Sailana) or their habitat is not taken care off (e.g. Kishanpur, Lagga- Bagga, Orang). There is a need to do publicity within the Forest Department.

    3) Sponsorship:
    Establishment and maintenance of some of the bustard and lesser florican sanctuaries were mainly due to active interest taken by individuals. Once such individuals retired or were shifted to other departments, conservation of these species received a set back.

    4) Research and implementation of findings:
    Little work has been done on the ecology and behaviour of the bustards, except for the studies done by the Bombay Natural History Society. Bustard populations need constant monitoring. Moreover, changes in habitats of some of the sanctuaries are taking place so fast that by the time the results are published, the situation is completely different. Worse, there is no authority or mechanism presently in existence to supervise the follow-up
    action on the recommendations of scientific studies.

    5) Need for clear records and establishment of rights and responsibilities: Over much of India’s pasture lands, there is no clarity on who has what rights and responsibilities. There is a need for a nationally coordinated process of establishing clear tenurial rights to pastoral communities and populations, along with clearly defined responsibilities for conservation and sustainable use, and specific responsibilities of the relevant departments to ensure such conservation and sustainable use. Such a system needs to be built into a sharply focused policy and programme on pastures, grazing, and livestock.

    6) Long-term plan:
    There is no proper long-term planning to protect the bustard habitats (except
    perhaps in the Bengal florican areas). As the bustards live in agriculturally marginal areas, which are not easy to manage, a greater administrative, community and scientific inputs are required to keep the habitat suitable for bustards. These multiple-use habitats can be protected an maintained only with the cooperation of local people, through building on their own traditional knowledge and practices regarding grasslands and livestock, and through providing secure tenure to local pastoral populations combined with responsibilities for conservation.

  8. Pramod Patil says:

    Objectives of Project Bustard for long term conservation of Bustards in India

    1) To immediately constitute a Task Force for the purpose of establishing Project Bustards on the lines of Project Tiger and Project Elephant which should submit its report within six months to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

    2. To conserve all the four species of bustards in India, along with the involvement of local communities living in and around the identified bustard and floricans habitats.

    3. To strictly protect the habitat and all the four species of bustards and their associated species in India.

    4. To establish interstate cooperation among the Range States to provide protection of the habitat and the birds.

    5. To identify areas which could be declared as bustard sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves or Community Reserves as envisaged in the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and the declaration of Ecological Sensitive Zones under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

    6. To provide necessary financial, management and scientific inputs required to protect the habitat within and outside the protected areas and all the bustards species.

    7. To plan and implement, with the involvement and consent of state governments and local communities, landscape level strategies for grassland management, both within and outside biodiversity/wildlife reserves.

    8. To provide necessary financial, management and scientific inputs required to protect the habitat within and outside the protected areas and all the bustards species.

    9. To start a long term Conservation Breeding Programme at least for the Great Indian Bustard.

    10. To produce educational material in local languages on grassland ecosystems and bustards for publicity in schools, colleges, and sanctuaries.

    11. To initiate discussions on and finalize a National Grazing and Grassland Policy in which bustard conservation is centrally integrated.

    (Ref : Asad R. Rahmani, 2006 Need to Start Project Bustards, Pp 20 BNHS)

  9. Carol Inskipp says:

    Please find below a draft species account (written in Dec 2011) from the Nepal Bird Red Data Book which is currently in preparation:

    Lesser Florican is now a very rare summer visitor. The species was formerly recorded more frequently, but may have only been a non-breeding monsoon visitor to Nepal, largely dependent on monsoon rains.

    The first Nepal record was in the 19th century (Hodgson 1844) when it was found in the Kathmandu Valley in June (year unknown) (Hodgson 1829). Three were seen and a specimen taken from the Valley in July 1960 (Fleming and Traylor 1961), but there are no later reports from the Valley. One was collected in the Rapti Dun between 29 March and 4 April 1962 near or within what is now Chitwan National Park (Diesselhorst 1968). There were a few records from Bardia National Park in the 1980s: a male on 17 May and a male and a female on 19 May 1982 (Inskipp and Inskipp 1982), and in June 1988 (Suwal and Shrestha 1988). There are also a few 1980s records from Chitwan National Park, e.g. in 1983 Tika Giri in litt. 2004, in March 1986 (Couronne and Kovacs 1986), and in May 1987 (Halberg (1987). In Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve there is only been one undated record (Heinen 1988).

    Since 1990 there have been only four confirmed records: a female in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in June 1995 (Cox 1995), two males in Chitwan National Park in April 1996 (Choudhary 1996) and one there in May 1999 (Chaudhary 2004), and also a male in Bardia National Park in June 2005 (Giri and Choudhary 2005). An eleven day survey specifically for the species in the Bardia National Park in May 2000 failed to find it (Timilsina et al. 2000).

    Habitat and Ecology
    Lesser Florican inhabits dry grasslands in Nepal. It feeds on insects of all kinds, mainly grasshoppers and beetles (Ali and Ripley 1987). The species is subject to migratory movements depending on rainfall (Grimmett et al. 1998).

    Very small areas of suitable habitat remain and these are almost entirely within protected areas. Here Lesser Florican is severely threatened by disturbance and insufficient protection resulting in overgrazing and subsequent grassland degradation. It is also seriously threatened by inappropriate management, such as ploughing in protected areas leading to a loss of suitable habitat. In addition, the invasive alien Mikania micrantha which can smother grasslands, has had serious impacts on Chitwan National Park and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (Baral 2002, Siwakoti 2007).Pressure on lowland grasslands is increasing. The species is also threatened by hunting.

    Conservation Measures
    Lesser Florican is on the Nepal nationally protected list. No other conservation measures have been taken for this species, but since the 1980s all records have been from protected areas: Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Chitwan and Bardia National Parks.

    Lesser Florican has been assessed as nationally Critically Endangered in Nepal based on the criteria A2ac, C2a(i) and D1. The species is a very rare summer visitor, subject to migratory movements depending on rainfall. It has a very small, declining population, primarily due to loss and degradation of its dry grassland habitat, even inside protected areas. Its population decline is predicted to continue as pressure on the remaining grasslands intensifies. Hunting is another threat to the species. Limited records of this species in recent years suggest that numbers are extremely low in the now restricted areas of suitable habitat for the species and it may be completely extirpated from Nepal.

    Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. (1987) Compact handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. New Delhi: Bombay Natural History Society.
    Baral, H. S. (2002) Invasive weed threatens protected area. Danphe 11(3): 10-11.
    Bird Conservation Nepal [BCN] and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation [DNPWC] (2011) The state of Nepal’s birds 2010. Bird Conservation Nepal and Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation: Kathmandu.
    BirdLife International (2011) Species factsheet: Sypheotides indicus.
    Chaudhary, D. B. (2004) Notable bird records from Tiger Tops area, Royal Chitwan National Park, 1999-2004. Unpublished.
    Choudhary, H. (1996) Additional sightings! Bird Conservation Nepal Newsletter 5(4): 2.
    Cox, J. Jr (1995) Birds observed from Dharan to Koshi Barrage, Sunishari District, Nepal, June 1995. Unpublished.
    Couronne, B. and Kovacs, J.-C. (1986) Observations ornithologiques au Nepal, Fevrier – Mars 1986. Unpublished.
    Diesselhorst, G. (1968) Beitrage zur Okologie der Vogel Zentral und Ost Nepals. Khumbu Himal 2: 1-417.
    Fleming, R. L. Sr and Traylor, M. A. (1961) Notes on Nepal birds. Fieldiana: Zool. 35(9): 447-487.
    Giri, T. and Choudhary, H. (2005) Additional sightings! Danphe 14(3/4): 2.
    Grimmett, R., Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T. (1998) Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. London, UK: Christopher Helm.
    Halberg, K. (1987) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, November 1985 and April – June 1987. Unpublished.
    Heinen, J. (1988) Notes on birds recorded at Kosi Barrage and Kosi Tappu from January 1987 to March 1988. Unpublished.
    Hodgson, B. H. (1829) Notes and original water colour paintings of the birds of Nepal, Tibet and India, held in the Zoological Society of London Library. Unpublished.
    Hodgson, B. H. (1844) Catalogue of Nipalese birds, collected between 1824 and 1844. In Gray, J. E. Zoological Miscellany, June 1844.
    Inskipp, C. and Inskipp, T. P. (1982) Notes on birds recorded in Nepal, April-June 1982. Unpublished.
    Suwal, R. N. and Shrestha, M. K. (1988) Birds recorded in a wetland survey of western Nepal, June 1988. Unpublished.
    Timilsina, N., Tamang, B. and Baral, N. (2000) Population status and distribution of Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica in the Royal
    Bardia National Park, Nepal with report on Bengal Florican. Report to WWF Nepal Program. Unpublished.

  10. Pramod Patil says:

    Please find the data on past and present distribution of Lesser Florican, as mentioned in Lesser Florican Species Recovery Programme (Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India). Draft is under preparation.

    Distribution: Past and Present
    The Lesser Florican is endemic to the Indian sub-continent. It is resident in nature; irregular local migrant, and also nomadic in the rainy season (SW monsoon). It was once widespread and common,. It was once abundant in terai region of Nepal but now is seen in the area quite rarely. It has also been sighted in Pakistan and is a vagrant in Bangladesh.
    According to Jerdon (1864) the Lesser Florican is found throughout India from “near the foot of the Himalayas to the Southern most districts” but Hume and Marshall (1878) opined that this gives a somewhat erroneous idea of is distribution which is not nearly so wide as this seem to imply, because the birds are confined to the plains and open country and are not found in the
    hills or thick forests. Baker (1921) collected all the records available in his time and found that the florican is widely scattered in the country in all the suitable grasslands. Ali and Ripley (1969) have summarised its distribution as resident, irregular local migrant, and also nomadic in the rainy season.
    Though straggler were seen as far east as Dinajpore (Hume and Marshall, 1978) and as far south as Kerala (Ferguson, 1904) the real of the Lesser Florican is in the grasslands of the Gujarat, eastern Rajasthan, western Madhya Pradesh and the Deccan. The birds are chiefly seen in these areas during the monsoon when they arrive for breeding. After breeding, most of the
    birds from Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh move to peninsular India
    (Dharmakumarsinhji, 1950). However, migration has not been studied in detail (Ali and Ripley, 1969).
    The main breeding areas were apparently in the districts of Nasik, Ahmednagar and Sholapur of Maharashtra, eastern Haryana and the Kathiawar Peninsula (south-central and south Gujarat) (Goriup and Karpowicz, 1985), but are now in southern Rajasthan, southern and eastern
    Gujarat, and western Madhya Pradesh (Sankaran 1991, 1994). In recent years, the Lesser Florican has become very rare (Goriup and Karpowicz, 1981) so sight records have also become uncommon.
    It has also been sighted in Pakistan and is a vagrant in Bangladesh.

    Present distribution:
    Currently Lesser Florican breeding is restricted to Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and western Madhya Pradesh. In August 2010, Bhardwaj et al. (2011) conducted surveys in the north-western India (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) in almost all the areas as surveyed by Sankaran (2000). Of the 169 potential grasslands available for Lesser Floricans in the north-western India, 91 grasslands were surveyed, which include grassland surveyed during 1999. Of the surveyed grasslands, Lesser Florican was found in 24 grasslands as against 37 grasslands in 1999. A total of 84
    Lesser Floricans (83 males and 1 female) was sighted in three, which is 65% less than the sightings reported by in 1999 by Sankaran (2000) in all the grassland surveyed (Bhardwaj et al. 2011).
    Maharashtra: A Lesser Florican was reported in Yavatmal district, Vidarbha region in Maharashtra1982. It was sighted in 2010 in Akola district again (Kasambe and Gahale, 2010). There are at least 20-25 Lesser Floricans in Washim Districts and joining in Maharashtra (Koustubh Pandhripande pers. com). There are records of the species from Nashik (Raha & Prakash 2001 and in Kolhapur district (pers. com. Sajnay Karkare).

    Madhya Pradesh: Its known distribution in Madhya Pradesh is restricted to Dhar and Jhabua Forest Divisions of Indore Forest Circle as well as Ratlam and Neemuch districts of Ujjain Forest Circle. Recently, one female was sighted in Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in Sheopur in August 2011 (Bhardwaj, et al. 2011). Madhya Pradesh has two exclusive Lesser Florican sanctuaries: Sailana Wildlife Sanctuary in Ratlam district and Sardarpur Wildlife Sanctuary in Dhar district.

    Gujarat: It is found in districts of Dahod, Bhavnagar, Amreli, Surendra Nagar and Kutch districts (Bhardwaj, et al. 2011). Rajasthan: It is found in districts of Ajmer, Bhilwada, Tonk, Pali and Pratapgarh districts (Bhardwaj, et al. 2011).
    Andhra Pradesh: It is found in Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary (Kurnool district), and in Banganpalli.

  11. A recent study (by Dutta and Jhala of the Wildlife Institute of India, unpublished data) monitored lesser florican population in Abdasa agro-grasslands (ca 225 sqkm in Kachchh, Gujarat) during 2007–2010. This landscape likely harbours about 26% of the global breeding population of lesser florican (Bharadwaj et al. 2011) and was also independently surveyed by Bharadwaj et al. (2011) in 2010.

    Dutta and Jhala (in litt.) used vehicle–foot combined search in fixed grids to record male florican occurrence in this landscape (n=14 sites of 16 sqkm each) following a similar method as Bharadwaj et al. (2011). The species was recorded from 6 sites in 2010 as opposed to 11 sites in 2007.

    Dutta and Jhala (in litt.) also estimated male florican densities in a subset of this landscape, a 130 sqkm prime habitat, using foot transects (distance sampling, see Buckland 2001). Male florican density (in 130 sqkm) was 1.28/sqkm in 2007, 0.57/sqkm in 2008 (drought), 1.17/sqkm in 2009 and 1.33/sqkm in 2010. This survey technique, although intensive and reliable, differed from Sankaran (2000) and Bharadwaj et al. (2011).

    Threats to the species in this landscape increased markedly; for e.g., ~25% loss of grassland area (converted into cultivation) between 2007 and 2010. Thus, density remained steady (but for the drought year 2008) in the prime habitat, but proportion of occupied sites (indicating habitat availability) declined in the landscape over the last four years. Authors administer caution that steady concentration of florican in the prime habitat may be due to falling habitat availability in the surroundings (also postulated by Sankaran 2000; BirdLife International 2001) and not indicative of global population trends.

    Moreover, Sankaran’s (2000) and Bharadwaj et al.’s (2011) results should be compared more carefully. To the best of my knowledge, the former searched florican on foot, while the latter on vehicle–foot combination not reporting search efforts which might differ between years. Search method and efforts would influence the number of sightings. For e.g., in the same locality (Nalliya range) and time (breeding season 2010), Dutta and Jhala (in litt.) found 42 males from 123 km foot search whereas Bharadwaj et al. (2011) found 22 males.

    It is clear from these non-concordant status estimates that trend assessment of florican population should be based on a more systematic, standardized monitoring protocol that circumvents limitations of the earlier ones (mentioned in Sankaran 2000) and be urgently implemented.

    Bharadwaj, G.S., Sivakumar, K., Jhala, Y.V., 2011. Status, distribution and conservation perspectives of Lesser Florican in the North-Western India. A Survey Report. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
    Birdlife International, 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the Birdlife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge.
    Buckland, S.T., 2001. Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford University Press, London.
    Sankaran, R., 2000. The status of the Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica in 1999. Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History/Bombay Natural History Society, Coimbatore, India.

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