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Category Archives: Waterbirds
BirdLife species factsheet for Double-banded Plover This discussion was first published as part of the 2019 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding the status of this species was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species … Continue reading
Archived 2020 topic: Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca) – reclassify from Vulnerable to Near Threatened
Please note: This discussion topic is one of a set about species that are endemic or nearly endemic to the European Union (EU), and whose status in the EU therefore effectively determines their global status. To ensure consistency between the … Continue reading
To suggest discussion of a species not listed in the forum, send a reply to this discussion. A moderator will assess the suitability of the topic and create a new topic if appropriate. Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for West Indian Whistling-duck West Indian Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna arborea) occurs in the Caribbean. It is found in the Bahamas, on Turks and Caicos, as well as on the Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles south to Guadeloupe. The … Continue reading
Archived 2019 topic: Reclassification of species listed as CR, CR (PE), EW and EX following Butchart et al. (2018)
A set of papers published in 2017 (Akcakaya et al. 2017, Keith et al. 2017, Thompson et al. 2017) laid out methods for quantitatively estimating a species’s probability of extinction based on parameters associated with threats, in addition to records … Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2018 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was made to uplist the species to Near Threatened, but to enable potential further reassessment of this species as … Continue reading
Madagascar Grebe (Tachybaptus pelzelnii) is endemic to Madagascar, generally frequenting shallow freshwater pools and lakes with dense lily pads, although it will occur on brackish and deeper water (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Langrand 1995, Fjeldså 2004, H. G. Young in litt. 2012). The … Continue reading
White-eyed Gull (Larus leucophthalmus) breeds on inshore islands and islets of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, while in the non-breeding season some individuals may wander throughout the breeding range. PERSGA/GEF (2003) estimated there to be 12,000-13,000 pairs (excluding … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus): uplist to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
This discussion was first published as part of the 2017 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of the species as part of the 2018 Red List update this … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita): downlist from Critically Endangered to Endangered?
This discussion was first published as part of the 2017 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of the species as part of the 2018 Red List update this … Continue reading
Archived 2017 topics: Southern Red-breasted Plover (Charadrius obscurus): uplist to Critically Endangered?
Southern Red-breasted Plover (or Southern New Zealand Dotterel) (Charadrius obscurus) is endemic to New Zealand. Once widespread in the South Island of New Zealand, it now breeds only on inland Stewart Island/Rakiura, mainly on subalpine herb-fields or rocky areas above … Continue reading
Black-faced Spoonbill is currently listed as Endangered under Criterion C2a(ii), on the basis that there is an on-going decline and the global population size is below 2,500 mature individuals. An apparent increase has been reported for the population over the … Continue reading
White-headed Duck, Oxyura leucocephala, has a very patchy distribution across Eurasia and into northern Africa. There is a small resident population in Spain, and northern Africa, but the majority of the population is migratory and is found further east, in … Continue reading
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus breeds predominantly in south-east Europe and central Asia, with breeding taking place in at least 12 countries (see Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017). During the non-breeding season, individuals in western populations migrate to the Mediterranean; individuals from … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Ferruginous Duck The global population size and trend of Ferruginous Duck has been difficult to establish with confidence due to an apparent tendency to shift its breeding distribution in response to interannual fluctuations in water levels … Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2016 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species as part of the 2017 Red List update this … Continue reading
St Helena Plover (Charadrius sanctaehelenae) is endemic to St Helena (to UK). This species is classified as Critically Endangered because its population was extremely small and declining owing to land-use change (particularly a decrease in grazing pressure) and predation by … Continue reading
Many thanks to all who contributed information and comments on this year’s reassessments. The 2015 Red List for birds was launched today, and the new assessments can be found at http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/search. You can read the BirdLife news story here: http://www.birdlife.org/worldwide/news/2015-red-list-vultures-shorebirds-and-other-iconic-species … Continue reading
Red Knot (BirdLife factsheet) is a long-distance migrant shorebird, with six Arctic-breeding subspecies: C. c. canutus – CN Siberia, in Taymyr Peninsula and possibly Yakutia; winters in W & S Africa and S Asia. C. c. piersmai – New Siberian … Continue reading
Curlew Sandpiper (BirdLife factsheet) breeds across Arctic Siberia from the Yamal Peninsula to Kolyuchinskaya Gulf (N Chukotskiy Peninsula), and winters from sub-Saharan Africa through Middle East and S & SE Asia to Australasia (van Gils and Wiersma 1996). Globally, it … Continue reading
Bar-tailed Godwit (BirdLife factsheet) breeds across the Arctic from northern Europe through Siberia to Alaska, wintering along the coasts of western Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Globally, it has an extremely large … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris): uplist from Vulnerable to Endangered or Critically Endangered?
Great Knot (BirdLife factsheet) breeds in north-east Siberia, Russia, wintering mainly in Australia, but also throughout the coastline of South-East Asia and on the coasts of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula (Van Gils et … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Far Eastern Curlew (Numenius madagascariensis): uplist from Vulnerable to Endangered or Critically Endangered?
Far Eastern Curlew (BirdLife factsheet) breeds in eastern Russia, from the upper reaches of the Nizhnyaya Tunguska river east though the Verkhoyarsk mountains to Kamchatka, and south to Primorye and north-eastern Mongolia (Van Gils & Wiersma 1996). The Yellow Sea … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis): uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
Red-necked Stint (BirdLife factsheet) breeds in central and eastern Siberia, wintering in South East Asia and Australasia. The global population is estimated at 315,000 individuals, of which c.270,000 reach Australia in the non-breeding season. It is currently listed as Least … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) – downlist from Endangered to Near Threatened?
Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis breeds on the Siberian tundra, almost entirely within the Taymyr Peninsula, but also in the Gydan and Yamal Peninsulas, and winters in SE Europe and SW Asia, mainly on the north and west coasts of the … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
Armenian Gull Larus armenicus breeds from the Caucasus through Armenia to W Turkey and NW Iran, and winters south to the E Mediterranean, N Red Sea and N Persian Gulf (Burger et al. 2015). It is currently listed as Least … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Audouin’s Gull (Larus audouinii) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii breeds on Mediterranean coasts, with its main breeding areas at the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) and Chafarinas Islands (off NE Morocco), and scattered colonies from Portugal, Morocco and Algeria east to the Aegean Sea, S Turkey … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Common Eider Somateria mollissima is distributed over the northern coasts of Europe, North America, eastern Siberia and southern Greenland. It breeds in the Arctic and northern temperate regions, but its range expands during winter to as far south as New … Continue reading
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus breeds in both the Palearctic (from Iceland and the Baltic to Kamchatka, wintering from the North Sea to the Caspian Sea and off E Asia) and the Nearctic (from C Alaska to C Canada and NW … Continue reading
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca breed in Scandinavia and Russia, east to the River Yenisey and south to Kazakhstan, with isolated populations in the Caucasus; it winters in the Baltic Sea and coastal W Europe, with some in the Black and … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus breeds from Europe, Turkey and NW Iran through W Russia and Kazakhstan to S & E Siberia, Mongolia and N China, and winters from W Europe, the E Atlantic islands and N Africa through the Mediterranean, … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) – uplist from Least Concern to Vulnerable?
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus has a wide range comprising four flyway populations: H. o. ostralegus breeds from Iceland and Scandinavia east to NW Russia, south through Britain to NW France, with isolated populations in the Mediterranean, and winters on coasts … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Great Snipe (Gallinago media) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Great Snipe Gallinago media breeds from Scandinavia east through the Baltic States, Poland and into Russia as far as the River Yenisey (95°E), and winters in sub-Saharan Africa (Van Gils et al. 2013). It is currently listed as Near Threatened, … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Common Pochard (Aythya ferina) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Common Pochard Aythya ferina breeds from W Europe eastwards through C Asia (in band at 40–60° N) to SC Siberia and N China to 120° E, and winters south to N & E Africa, India and S & E Asia … Continue reading
Surveys carried out in Cuba – the most significant part of the species’s range both in size and population numbers – have shown the species to be more widespread on the main island and adjacent offshore islands than was previously thought. Present knowledge suggests that the species does not meet the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN Red List criteria and may warrant downlisting. Continue reading
Northern Screamer Chauna chavaria is endemic to the marshlands of northern Colombia and north-western Venezuela. It is listed as Vulnerable at the national level in the two countries in which it occurs, and may qualify as globally threatened. To confirm whether this is the case, more information is required, particularly on its status in Colombia, where the majority of the world population is found. Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2013 Red List update, but remains open for comment to enable reassessment in 2015. BirdLife species factsheet for Brown Teal Brown Teal Anas chlorotis is endemic to New Zealand, where it was … Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2013 Red List update, but remains open for comment to enable reassessment in 2015. BirdLife species factsheet for New Zealand Grebe New Zealand Grebe Poliocephalus rufopectus is endemic to New Zealand. It is … Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Additional changes to species listed as Extinct: six [edited from five] Extinct species are being re-categorised as Not Recognised and 12 taxa [edited from 11] are being newly recognised as Extinct species
Five Extinct species are being re-categorised as Not Recognised and 12 taxa are being newly recognised as Extinct species following descriptions and evidence that they are likely to have remained extant post-1500. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris) is being split: list R. obsoletus (incorporating levipes, yumanensis and beldingi) as Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris is being split into R. longirostris, R. obsoletus and R. crepitans, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010). Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: American Coot (Fulica americana) and Caribbean Coot (F. caribaea) are being lumped as F. americana: list the newly defined species as Least Concern?
American Coot Fulica americana and Caribbean Coot F. caribaea are being lumped as F. americana, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010) and study of published information (Robertson and Baptista 1988, McNair and Cramer-Burke 2006, Sibley 2011). Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Silvery Grebe (Podiceps occipitalis) is being split: list P. juninensis as Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Silvery Grebe Podiceps occipitalis is being split into P. occipitalis and P. juninensis, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010). Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2013 Red List update, but remains open for comment to enable reassessment in 2014. Link to BirdLife species factsheet for Grey-tailed Tattler Grey-tailed Tattler Heteroscelus brevipes is currently listed as Least Concern because … Continue reading
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes is listed as Least Concern on the basis that it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. In recent years, evidence of declines in the population of T. flavipes has raised concerns over the species’s status. Up-to-date information is requested on this species’s population trend and the severity of potential threats. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Andean Flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus), Puna Flamingo (P. jamesi) and Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis): downlist all to Least Concern?
Andean Flamingo Phoenicoparrus andinus is currently listed as Vulnerable under the A criterion, and James’s Flamingo P. jamesi and Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis are listed as Near Threatened under the A criterion. The results of surveys carried out for the International Simultaneous Census and Simultaneous Census of Network Sites in 2010 and six previous years since 1997 suggest that the population trends of these species are in fact stable or increasing (Marconi et al. in press). Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Sunda Teal (Anas gibberifrons) is being split: list A. albogularis as Vulnerable?
Sunda Teal Anas gibberifrons is being split into A. gibberifrons and A. albogularis, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010). Continue reading
Final decisions have been reached on the 2013 forum consultations. These are subject to approval and ratification by the IUCN. Continue reading
The attached spreadsheet lists preliminary decisions for the 2013 Red List update. Continue reading
Archived 2012-2013 topics: White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi): uplist to Critically Endangered?
White-winged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi occurs in Ethiopia (currently three sites in the central highlands, the only known breeding area for this species) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998, Taylor 1998, 1999), Zimbabwe (one record in 1988 [Hustler and Irwin 1995], two … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Brazilian Merganser Brazilian Merganser Mergus octosetaceus occurs at a few highly disjunct localities in south-central Brazil, with a few records from Argentina in 2002 (the first in the country for 10 years despite extensive surveys) (Benstead 1994, Hearn … Continue reading
In 2004, Laysan Duck Anas laysanensis was uplisted to Critically Endangered because new information suggested that its population was undergoing extreme fluctuations within its extremely small range on just one island, however following successful translocations, by the 2011 Red List update the population will be estimated to have been increasing for at least five years without the occurrence of extreme fluctuations. It is therefore proposed to downlist the species to Vulnerable under criterion D2. Continue reading
2011-2012 Forum topics Final decisions The attached spreadsheet lists the results of the 2012 forum consultations, subject to approval and ratification by IUCN. Please use the filters to look for your region or species group of interest. Any discussions of … Continue reading
2012 forum topics provisional decisions The attached spreadsheet lists preliminary decisions for the 2012 Red List. Please use the filters to look for your region or species group of interest. There will now be a further final opportunity to make … Continue reading
Greater Scaup Aythya marila breeds in tundra and moorland in northernmost Europe, Asia and North America, and winters in shallow coastal waters and occasionally inland water bodies south of its breeding grounds. The species is currently listed as Least Concern on the basis that it was not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. An analysis of Christmas Bird Count data collected since the mid-1960s suggests that an annual population change of -3.4% has occurred across c.85% of the species’s range in North America, indicating a 75% decline between 1965-1966 and 2005-2006 (Butcher and Niven 2007), and suggesting a decline of c.57% over the last three generations.
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis is a widespread circumpolar species that breeds mainly in the Arctic tundra and winters generally to the south, mainly far offshore. It is currently listed as Least Concern because it was not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN Red List criteria. Taking the 27-year decline rates calculated for the Baltic and North American populations, and assuming that the two other smaller populations have remained stable, the species’s global population may be declining at a rate of more than 50% over three generations, which would qualify the species for uplisting to Endangered under criterion A.
Archived 2011-2012 topics: Taxonomic changes in the genus Melanitta, part II: suggestions to list M. fusca as Endangered and M. deglandi as Least Concern, and request for information on M. stejnegeri
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca has been split into M. fusca, M. deglandi and M. stejnegeri following a review of recent literature (Livezey 1995, Garner et al. 2004, Sangster et al. 2005, Collinson et al. 2006, AOU 2010) and museum specimens by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. Further information is requested and comments are invited on whether the population of M. fusca is likely to have declined at a rate equivalent to 50-79% over the past three generations, and thus whether it qualifies for listing as Endangered under criterion A. Continue reading
Archived 2011-2012 topics: Taxonomic changes in the genus Melanitta, part I: suggestion to list M. nigra as Vulnerable and request for information on M. americana
Black Scoter Melanitta nigra has been split into M. nigra and M. americana following a review of recent literature (Livezey 1995, Garner et al. 2004, Sangster et al. 2005, Collinson et al. 2006, AOU 2010) and museum specimens by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. Further information is requested on population trends in these two newly-split species and comments are invited on whether the population of M. nigra is likely to have declined at a rate equivalent to at least 30% over the past three generations, and thus if it qualifies for listing as at least Vulnerable under criterion A. Continue reading
Archived 2011-2012 topics: White-headed Steamerduck (Tachyeres leucocephalus): uplist to Vulnerable?
A recently published study estimated the total population at 3,428-3,673 adults (Agüero et al. 2011), suggesting that the current population estimate used by BirdLife is correct, but could be refined. However, Agüero et al. (2011) also provide evidence to suggest that the population is in decline. It is suggested that the species could qualify for uplisting to Vulnerable under criterion C2a(ii). Continue reading
Although BirdLife International does not yet have the capacity to assess global extinction risk at the subspecies level, we are currently working on a project to produce a synthesis of all bird taxa, at the species and subspecies level, that are known or thought to have gone extinct since 1500. This is the first time that subspecies extinctions have been systematically documented and analysed, and we hope that the results will provide new insights to support global efforts (including through the BirdLife Partnership) to conserve the world’s threatened birds. Continue reading
Archived 2011-2012 topics: Hooded Grebe (Podiceps gallardoi): does it qualify as Critically Endangered?
The results of surveys conducted on more than 50 lakes and lagoons that could hold breeding populations, including the six key waterbodies that held c.40% of the total population in the 1980s, suggest that the rate of decline may have been more rapid than previously thought (Imberti and Casañas 2010). When mean counts from the 1980s are summed across these six main sites, a total of 1,832 adults are estimated to have been recorded; however, surveys at these same sites in 2009 yielded records of only 117 adults. Furthermore, an estimated total of c.580 nests were recorded at these six sites during the 1980s, with not one found during the surveys in 2009 (Imberti and Casañas 2010). The difference in the number of adults recorded suggests that a decline of c.94% has occurred at these sites over c.24 years. This equates to a decline of 90.5% over the past 21 years, assuming an exponential trend. Continue reading
It has recently been noted that the species is becoming more difficult to find during birding tours, and that it could be in rapid decline owing to the on-going destruction of wetlands (P. Morris in litt. 2010). Further details are requested on the severity of threats and likely population trend. Continue reading
Baer’s Pochard Aythya baeri is currently classified as Endangered. Unconfirmed reports from eastern China suggest as many as 3,000 individuals may be hunted every year. If there was sufficient reason to believe the global population of Baer’s Pochard may have declined at a rate of at least 80% over three generations (23 years), then the species should be reassessed as Critically Endangered. Up to date counts from either breeding, passage or wintering sites would be extremely useful in enabling us to estimate population trends in this species. Continue reading
Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata is listed as Near Threatened under criteria A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d on the basis that it is suspected to be undergoing a continued decline of 1-19% over 10 years owing to heavy and ongoing hunting pressure. Recently, concern has been expressed over the conversion of suitable habitat in Venezuela for agriculture, particularly for rice cultivation, some of which is taking place in formerly protected areas (C. Sharpe in litt. 2010).
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla is listed as Least Concern on the basis that it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. Recent population trends appear to have been negative for this species in many areas. Up-to-date information is requested on this species, in particular the likely population trend and the severity of threats. Continue reading
The discussion period for the 2011 Red List has now finished and final decisions have been taken – these decisions will be incorporated into the 2011 Red List, which will be released by BirdLife in May 2011, and by IUCN … Continue reading
The attached spreadsheets list the draft decisions for the 2011 IUCN Red List. There is now a final opportunity for comments on these proposals prior to a final deadline of 21 February 2011. Africa 2010-2011 Americas 2010-2011 Asia 2010-2011 Europe … Continue reading
Noble Snipe Gallinago nobilis is currently listed as Least Concern because it was not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. However, if the rates of habitat loss and intensity of hunting pressure described by Cisneros-Heredia (2006) for Ecuador are representative of threats throughout its range, this species could be experiencing an ongoing and moderately rapid decline, likely to be approaching 30% over 14 years (estimate of three generations).
Campbell Islands Teal Anas nesiotis was formally recognised by BirdLife International in 2000 and immediately listed as Critically Endangered under criterion D1, as it had a population of fewer than 50 mature individuals. Since 1999, a breeding, translocation and reintroduction programme has been successful in increasing the total population. Continue reading
Baikal Teal Anas formosa is listed as Vulnerable under criterion A3c on the basis that the population is projected to decline at a rate of 30-49% over 10 years, however counts of wintering individuals in South Korea have increased spectacularly over recent years, and if this species is indeed increasing, it might be eligible for downlisting. Continue reading