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Category Archives: Seabirds
This discussion was first published as part of the 2016 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species as part of the 2021 Red List update this … Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2018 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species as part of the 2020 Red List update this … Continue reading
Please note: This discussion topic is one of a set about species that are endemic or nearly endemic to the European Union (EU), and whose status in the EU therefore effectively determines their global status. To ensure consistency between the … Continue reading
Archived 2020 topic: Balearic Shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus): request for information to resolve conservation status assessment
Please note: This discussion topic is one of a set about species that are endemic or nearly endemic to the European Union (EU), and whose status in the EU therefore effectively determines their global status. To ensure consistency between the … Continue reading
To suggest discussion of a species not listed in the forum, send a reply to this discussion. A moderator will assess the suitability of the topic and create a new topic if appropriate. Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Ringed Storm-petrel The Ringed Storm-petrel (Hydrobates hornbyi) has been observed in thousands in the eastern Pacific Ocean, from 0°S to 35°S along the coast of Ecuador, Peru and Chile (Spear and Ainley 2007, Onley and Scofield … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Markham’s Storm-petrel Markham’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates markhami) occurs in the tropical zone of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Between July and September, it is found over warm, equatorial waters, while between January and July it moves to cooler … Continue reading
Archived 2019 topic: South Georgia Diving-petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) is being split: assessment of newly recognised taxa.
BirdLife species factsheet for South Georgia Diving-petrel Following a taxonomic reassessment, South Georgia Diving-petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) is being split into South Georgia Diving-petrel (P. georgicus) and Whenua Hou Diving-petrel (P. whenuahouensis). The newly-defined South Georgia Diving-petrel occurs in the southern … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Red-billed Tropicbird Red-billed Tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus) ranges across tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the north-west Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific. The species is mostly pelagic. It breeds in loose colonies on sea cliffs or … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Tristram’s Storm-petrel Tristram’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates tristrami) breeds in the Hawaiian archipelago, on several islets of the Bonin and Izu islands off Japan, and possibly on Midway, Lisianski and Kure in Micronesia (Rauzon et al. 1985, Harrison … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Murphy’s Petrel Murphy’s Petrel (Pterodroma ultima) occurs in the south-central Pacific Ocean, where it breeds on Pitcairn, the Tuamotu Archipelago, the Austral Islands, Easter Island as well as in French Polynesia, and possibly also on the … Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2018 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was made to uplist the species to Near Threatened, but to enable potential further reassessment of this species as … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus newelli) is being split: assessment of newly recognised taxa.
BirdLife species factsheet for Newell’s Shearwater: http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/newells-shearwater-puffinus-newelli Follow a taxonomic reassessment, Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus newelli), has been split into Newell’s Shearwater (P. newelli) and Rapa Shearwater (P. myrtae). The newly defined Newell’s Shearwater breeds on Hawaiian Islands, predominantly on … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Band-rumped Storm-petrel (Hydrobates castro) is being split: assessment of newly recognised taxa.
Following a taxonomic reassessment, the Band-rumped Storm-petrel, Hydrobates castro, has been split on the HBW/BirdLife International checklist into H. castro and H. jabejabe. H. castro encompasses the vast majority of the range of the pre-split species and with no evidence to … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Leach’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous) is being split: assessment of newly recognised taxa.
Following a taxonomic reassessment, Leach’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous) has been split on the HBW/BirdLife International checklist into H. leucorhous, H. socorroensis and H. cheimomnestes. When treated as subspecies, H. l. socorroensis was referred to as Townsend’s Storm-petrel, and H. l. … Continue reading
Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) is known only to breed on the Hawaiian islands of Hawai`i, Lana`i, Moloka`i, Kaua`i and Maui, and it ranges through the central Pacific. Analysis by Spear et al. (1995) gave a best estimate for the population … Continue reading
White-fronted Tern (Sterna striata) is found in south-eastern Australasia, and is split into three subspecies. The nominate S. s. striata breeds on North, South and Stewart Islands of New Zealand; S. s. aucklandorum breeds on the Chatham Islands and Auckland … Continue reading
White-eyed Gull (Larus leucophthalmus) breeds on inshore islands and islets of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, while in the non-breeding season some individuals may wander throughout the breeding range. PERSGA/GEF (2003) estimated there to be 12,000-13,000 pairs (excluding … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus): uplist to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
This discussion was first published as part of the 2017 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of the species as part of the 2018 Red List update this … Continue reading
Archived 2018 topic: Amsterdam Albatross (Diomedea amsterdamensis): downlist from Critically Endangered to Endangered?
This discussion was first published as part of the 2016 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of the species as part of the 2018 Red List update this … Continue reading
Black-browed Albatross, Thalassarche melanophris, ranges from subtropical to polar waters in the southern hemisphere (ACAP 2009). It breeds on islands throughout its circumpolar distribution, with breeding occurring on the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), multiple islands to Chile, South Georgia (Georgias … Continue reading
Cape Gannet Morus capensis is a breeding endemic species of coastal southern Africa, breeding on 6 islands in total. These sites are evenly split between South Africa (Bird [Algoa Bay], Malgas and Bird [Lambert’s Bay] Islands) and Namibia (Ichaboae, Mercury … Continue reading
Westland Petrel, Procellaria westlandica, is known only to breed in the densely forested coastal foothills of Punakaiki, South Island, New Zealand (Best and Owen 1976, ACAP 2012). The most recent estimate of population size is 2,954-5,137 annual breeding pairs (Wood … Continue reading
Antipodean Albatross, Diomedea antipodensis, is a breeding endemic of New Zealand. It is known to breed on only a very limited number of islands; Antipodes Island, the Auckland Islands (Adams, Auckland and Disappointment), Campbell Island and Pitt Island (one pair … Continue reading
Relict Gull, Larus relictus, is a migratory gull, breeding at localities in Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and China (e.g. Rubini and Berezovikov 2002, He Fen-qi and Ren Yong-qui 2006). Breeding sites are found in the arid-steppe zone on islands in saline … Continue reading
Archived 2017 topics: The taxonomic treatment of the Little Shearwater (Puffinus assimilis)/Audubon’s Shearwater (P. lherminieri) complex is being revised, and P. bryani is being recognised as a species: request for information
BirdLife’s taxonomic treatment of the Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis/Audubon’s Shearwater P. lherminieri complex is being revised to reflect improved understanding of their taxonomy, and P. bryani (Pyle et al. 2011) is to be recognised as a species. Continue reading
Archived 2017 topics: Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) – request for information from North Pacific
This discussion was first published as part of the 2015 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species as part of the 2017 Red List update this … Continue reading
Archived 2017 topics: Aleutian Tern (Onychoprion aleuticus, formerly Sterna aleutica): uplist to Vulnerable or Endangered?
This discussion was first published as part of the 2014 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species as part of the 2017 Red List update this … Continue reading
Archived 2016 topics: Salvin’s Prion (Pachyptila salvini) is being split: list P. salvini as Least Concern and P. macgillivrayi as Endangered?
BirdLife International now recognises the split of Pachyptila salvini into P. salvini and P. macgillivrayi. Prior to this taxonomic change, Salvin’s Prion Pachyptila salvini (http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3915) was listed as Least Concern, on the basis that it has a very large range, … Continue reading
Archived 2016 topics: Leach’s Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous): uplist from Least Concern to Vulnerable?
BirdLife species factsheet for Leach’s storm-petrel: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/factsheet/22698511 The Leach’s storm-petrel has an extensive global range and breeding colonies are confined to the northern hemisphere, from the South Kuril Islands (Japan) round to Baja California (Mexico) including the Aleutian Islands, Alaska … Continue reading
Archived 2016 topics: Flesh-footed Shearwater (Ardenna carneipes): uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
BirdLife species factsheet for Flesh-footed Shearwater: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3930 Flesh-footed Shearwater breeds on St Paul Island (French Southern Territories), Lord Howe Island (Australia), islands off south-west mainland Australia, South Australia (at two isolated colonies), and islands off North and South Islands (New … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Damara Tern: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3282 Damara Tern (Sternula balaenarum) breeds along the coast of southern Angola, Namibia and South Africa (Crawford & Simmons 1997, Simmons 2010, Braby 2011). A total of 70 known breeding colonies are found across its … Continue reading
Archived 2016 topics: Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua): downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
BirdLife species factsheet for Gentoo Penguin: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/factsheet/22697755 The Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua has a circumpolar breeding distribution that ranges in latitude from the Fish Islands on the Antarctic Peninsula (66°01’S) (Fraser unpublished) to the Crozet Islands (46°00’S) (Lynch 2013). The … Continue reading
Archived 2016 topics: Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae): downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
BirdLife species factsheet for Adélie Penguin: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/factsheet/22697758 The Adélie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae is found along much of the Antarctic coastline where it breeds on ice-free land including at some of the nearby islands. Individuals are dispersive, moving towards areas of … Continue reading
Many thanks to all who contributed information and comments on this year’s reassessments. The 2015 Red List for birds was launched today, and the new assessments can be found at http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/search. You can read the BirdLife news story here: http://www.birdlife.org/worldwide/news/2015-red-list-vultures-shorebirds-and-other-iconic-species … Continue reading
Chatham Petrel (Pterodroma axillaris) breeds only in the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, where it is restricted to South East Island (= Rangatira), Pitt Island and main Chatham Island, having been reintroduced to both of the latter two. P. axillaris is … Continue reading
Razorbill Alca torda breeds in the temperate N Atlantic and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean, on both sides of the Atlantic, as far south as NW France, north as Svalbard and east to NW Russia, wintering along Atlantic coasts … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Yelkouan Shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) – downlist from Vulnerable to Least Concern?
Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan is endemic to the Mediterranean and Black Seas, breeding from S France and E Algeria east to Greece and Bulgaria; breeding is also suspected in Turkey, but still not proven (Carboneras et al. 2014). It is … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
Armenian Gull Larus armenicus breeds from the Caucasus through Armenia to W Turkey and NW Iran, and winters south to the E Mediterranean, N Red Sea and N Persian Gulf (Burger et al. 2015). It is currently listed as Least … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Audouin’s Gull (Larus audouinii) – downlist from Near Threatened to Least Concern?
Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii breeds on Mediterranean coasts, with its main breeding areas at the Ebro Delta (NE Spain) and Chafarinas Islands (off NE Morocco), and scattered colonies from Portugal, Morocco and Algeria east to the Aegean Sea, S Turkey … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) – uplist from Least Concern to Endangered?
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica breeds from NE & E Canada and NE USA east through Greenland to Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, and south to Iceland, Fennoscandia, Faroes, Britain, Ireland and NW France; it winters at sea, mostly in … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
Common Eider Somateria mollissima is distributed over the northern coasts of Europe, North America, eastern Siberia and southern Greenland. It breeds in the Arctic and northern temperate regions, but its range expands during winter to as far south as New … Continue reading
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus breeds in both the Palearctic (from Iceland and the Baltic to Kamchatka, wintering from the North Sea to the Caspian Sea and off E Asia) and the Nearctic (from C Alaska to C Canada and NW … Continue reading
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca breed in Scandinavia and Russia, east to the River Yenisey and south to Kazakhstan, with isolated populations in the Caucasus; it winters in the Baltic Sea and coastal W Europe, with some in the Black and … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) – uplist from Least Concern to Near Threatened?
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus is endemic to Europe, breeding and wintering widely in the N and NW of the continent. It is currently listed as Least Concern, because when last assessed it was not thought to approach the thresholds … Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is being split: request for information on C. diomedea and C. borealis
Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea is being split into C. diomedea and C. borealis, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010) and consultation of genetic evidence (Gómez-Díaz et al. 2009, Genovart et al. 2013). Continue reading
This discussion was first published as part of the 2013 Red List update, but remains open for comment to enable reassessment in 2015. BirdLife Species Factsheet for White-chinned Petrel White-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis is currently classified as Vulnerable under criterion … Continue reading
In Japan, where it is thought that the majority of the species’s world population breeds, there are 11 islands that are inhabited by more than 10,000 breeding pairs of this species, with birds on at least three of these islands having been shown to be negatively impacted by introduced predators (M. Sato in litt. 2011). In addition to the threat from introduced predators, the species is also susceptible to fisheries bycatch (J. Croxall in litt. 2011). The prevalence of these threats suggests that the species is in population decline; however, further data and observations are required from throughout the species’s range to better assess the current trend. Continue reading
It has been argued that there are in fact no credible threats to the largest colony on Macquarie Island (S. Garnett in litt. 2011). Casual observations suggest that the population is increasing. Based on the clarification of the species’s status, it is suggested that it could qualify for downlisting to Least Concern on the basis that it no longer meets or approaches the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the IUCN criteria. Continue reading
Archived 2015 topics: Cassin’s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus): uplist to Near Threatened or Vulnerable?
This discussion was first published as part of the 2013 Red List update, but remains open for comment to enable reassessment in 2015. BirdLife species factsheet for Cassin’s Auklet Cassin’s Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus ranges from Baja California (Mexico) up the Pacific … Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Xantus’s Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) is being split: list S. hypoleucus as Endangered and S. scrippsi as Vulnerable?
Xantus’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus is being split into S. hypoleucus and S. scrippsi, following the application of criteria set out by Tobias et al. (2010), and consideration of genetic evidence (Birt et al. 2012). Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Matsudaira’s Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma matsudairae): request for information
Matsudaira’s Storm-petrel Oceanodroma matsudairae is known to breed at least on Minami-iwo-jima and perhaps formerly on Kita-iwo-jima, both situated in the Volcano Islands (=Kazan Retto), Japan (Chiba et al. 2007), and may also breed on the Ogasawara Islands (Brazil 1991, 2009). It is currently listed as Data Deficient on the basis that insufficient information was available for the evaluation of its status against the IUCN criteria.Further information on this species is requested to help in the assessment of its threat status. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Kittlitz’s Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris): is it eligible for downlisting?
It is proposed that the species’s status be re-evaluated. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the species’s current population trend, with views that the species may be declining more slowly than previously thought, or that it could be stable or increasing. Further information is requested on the likely trend over a period of three generations. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: Fea’s Petrel (Pterodroma feae) is being split: list P. deserta as Vulnerable and P. feae as Near Threatened?
Fea’s Petrel Pterodroma feae is being split into P. feae and P. deserta, following published studies (e.g. Robb et al. 2008, Jesus et al. 2009), in particular highlighting differences between these taxa in breeding seasonality and vocalisations. Continue reading
Archived 2014 discussion: The newly described taxon Oceanites pincoyae is to be recognised as a species by BirdLife: list as Data Deficient?
The newly described taxon Oceanites pincoyae (Harrison et al. 2013) is to be recognised as a species following application of the Tobias et al. (2010) criteria, which support its distinctiveness from congeners. Continue reading
Final decisions have been reached on the 2013 forum consultations. These are subject to approval and ratification by the IUCN. Continue reading
The attached spreadsheet lists preliminary decisions for the 2013 Red List update. Continue reading
BirdLife Species Factsheet for White-capped Albatross White-capped Albatross Thalassarche steadi has been listed as Near Threatened (approaching the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion A2de, A3de, A4de) since 2007, when Diomedea cauta was split into Thalassarche steadi and T. cauta. The … Continue reading
BirdLife Species Factsheet for Grey-headed Albatross Grey-headed Albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma is currently listed as Vulnerable under criterion A4bd on the basis of an estimated population decline of 30-49% over three generations (90 years). This estimate is based on documented declines … Continue reading
Archived 2012-2013 topics: Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys): downlist to Near Threatened?
BirdLife Species Factsheet for Black-browed Albatross Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophrys is currently listed as Endangered under criterion A4bd on the basis of a projected ongoing population decline of more than 50% over three generations (65 years). Around 70% of the … Continue reading
Archived 2012-2013 topics: Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes): downlist to Near Threatened?
BirdLife Species Factsheet for Black-footed Albatross Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes breeds on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA), the US Minor Outlying Islands and three outlying islands of Japan, colonies having been lost from other Pacific islands. The species is currently … Continue reading
BirdLife Species Factsheet for Amsterdam Albatross Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis breeds only on Amsterdam Island (French Southern Territories) in the southern Indian Ocean. Snce 1994 it has been listed as Critically Endangered under criteria (B2ab(v); C2a(ii)), since it was estimated … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Olrog’s Gull Olrog’s Gull Larus atlanticus breeds on the coast of Argentina between 38°49′ and 45°11’S (Yorio et al. 2005). It is currently listed as Vulnerable under B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i) because it has a small range and population (<10,000 … Continue reading
BirdLife species factsheet for Cape Cormorant Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis is restricted to the West and South Coast of South Africa, Namibia and southern Angola. It is currently listed as Near Threatened under criteria A2b+3bc+4b, owing to moderately rapid declines in its … Continue reading
Northern Royal Albatross Diomedea sanfordi is listed as Endangered under criteria A4b,c; B2a+b(iii,v) on the basis that the species occupies an Area of Occupancy of less than 10 km2, including fewer than five locations (three island groups), in which the population is estimated to be undergoing a very rapid decline. Further information on this species’s current and projected population trends over a period of 81 years (revised estimate of three generations), as well as the estimated population size, is requested to help in the assessment of its threat status.
Archived 2012-2013 topics: Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus): correctly listed as Vulnerable?
The validity of the current assessment for this species has been brought into question by a review by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 2008). Criticisms, combined with suggestions that some populations are stable or increasing, or have unknown trends, suggest that the overall estimated rate of decline should be reduced for this species. Comments on the current listing and further information on the species are requested. Continue reading
2011-2012 Forum topics Final decisions The attached spreadsheet lists the results of the 2012 forum consultations, subject to approval and ratification by IUCN. Please use the filters to look for your region or species group of interest. Any discussions of … Continue reading
2012 forum topics provisional decisions The attached spreadsheet lists preliminary decisions for the 2012 Red List. Please use the filters to look for your region or species group of interest. There will now be a further final opportunity to make … Continue reading
To explore the impact of uncertainty on the overall trend and category, a number of alternative scenarios were also explored (see attached spreadsheet). When the trend assessments were re-run, only the most optimistic scenarios altered the potential Red List category (from Endangered to Vulnerable or Near Threatened), i.e. assuming Italy is experiencing the minimum decline rate and countries with unknown trends are stable.
This suggests that the species’s global status ought to be revised to Vulnerable under criterion A4b,c,d,e, as it is projected to suffer a rapid population reduction (30-49% decline over three generations). Comments on this proposal and any relevant information (particularly including trend information for additional countries) are invited. Continue reading
The species’s population trend is suspected to be stable; however, the islands on which it is known to breed are inhabited by introduced cats, rats and dogs. The species is also potentially impacted by logging, which may actually be the most important threat (C. Collins pers. comm.). Any evidence that suggests a decline is occurring in the population might make the species eligible for uplisting to Endangered under criterion C2a(ii). Continue reading
A recently published study has improved our knowledge of this species’s status, including the threats it faces. Sato et al. (2010) describe threats at breeding sites as including mining operations, introduced predators and tourism. Further information is sought on the likely population trend in this species. Continue reading
Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes is currently listed as Endangered under criterion A4b,d, on the basis that its population is projected to decline by more than 60% over 56 years (estimate of three generations), as modelled using a moderate scenario for fisheries bycatch of 8,000 birds per year (Lewison and Crowder 2003). The recent analysis presented by Arata et al. (2009) brings into question the validity of the species’s current Red List status. It suggests that the rate of projected decline should be lowered, which could result in the species becoming eligible for downlisting. Continue reading
Archived 2011-2012 topics: The effects of projected climate change on the Southern Ocean and Antarctic environment: uplist Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) to Vulnerable and Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) to Near Threatened?
In a recent paper by Ainley et al. (2010), Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri and Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae are predicted to decline in the northern part of their respective ranges during the next 15-42 years owing to projected changes in sea ice and precipitation. Continue reading
The discussion period for the 2011 Red List has now finished and final decisions have been taken – these decisions will be incorporated into the 2011 Red List, which will be released by BirdLife in May 2011, and by IUCN … Continue reading
The attached spreadsheets list the draft decisions for the 2011 IUCN Red List. There is now a final opportunity for comments on these proposals prior to a final deadline of 21 February 2011. Africa 2010-2011 Americas 2010-2011 Asia 2010-2011 Europe … Continue reading
Collared Petrel Pterodroma brevipes is currently listed as Near Threatened, however on current available information it appears to meet the critera for listing as Vulnerable under C2a(i) i.e. 1,000 individuals. Continue reading
Flightless Cormorant Phalacrocorax harrisi is endemic to Fernandina and Isabela in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, and is currently classified as Endangered because it has a very small breeding range and a population which has been estimated to have undergone extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals. It is proposed to reclassify the Flightless Cormorant as Vulnerable under criterion D2 (as the species is capable of becoming Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a very short time period), because the population has not undergone extreme fluctuations and recent data suggests it may be stabilising at a new high . Continue reading