Semi-collared Hawk (Accipiter collaris): revise global status?

BirdLife species factsheet for Semi-collared Hawk

Semi-collared Hawk (Accipiter collaris) occurs on the west and east slopes of the Andes from south-west Venezuela through Colombia and Ecuador to southern Peru (Thiollay 1994, Angulo and Piana 2011). The species occurs in forest and forest edge, preferring mostly subtropical and moist or wet areas (Bierregaard et al. 2020). Even though forests within its range have suffered losses due to agricultural expansion, this does currently not seem to affect the species, and the population is thought to be stable (Bierregaard et al. 2020).

Semi-collared Hawk is likely to be genuinely rare, but can be occasionally relatively abundant (Bierregaard et al. 1994, Thiollay 1994, Parker et al. 1996, Bierregaard et al. 2020). The global population size has not been quantified. National population estimates include c. 2,900 mature individuals in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2014), c. 10,000 mature individuals in Ecuador (Freile et al. 2018) and c. 3,300 mature individuals in Peru (SERFOR 2018). Tentatively, the population size is here placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, but research is needed to produce a precise estimate.

Semi-collared Hawk has been considered Near Threatened, approaching the threshold for listing as threatened under Criterion C1+2a(i) (BirdLife International 2020). However, a review of available information regarding the population size and trend suggest that this species may warrant a change in Red List status. Therefore, we have fully assessed the species here against all criteria.

Criterion A – The population is thought to be stable over the last three generations (15 years; Bird et al. 2020*). Therefore, Semi-collared Hawk may be listed as Least Concern under Criterion A.

Criterion B – The newly calculated Extent of Occurrence (EOO) for this species is 1,900,000 km2. This is too large to meet the threshold for Vulnerable under Criterion B1, and Semi-collared Hawk may be listed as Least Concern under this criterion. The Area of Occupancy (AOO) has not been quantified following IUCN Guidelines (IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee 2019), and therefore the species cannot be assessed against Criterion B2.

Criterion C – The global population size is too large to meet the threshold for listing as threatened under this criterion. The population is moreover thought to be stable. Therefore, Semi-collared Hawk may be considered Least Concern under Criterion C.

Criterion D – The global population and range are too large to meet the threshold for listing as threatened under this criterion. Therefore, the species is considered Least Concern under Criterion D.

Criterion E – To the best of our knowledge, there has been no quantitative analysis of extinction risk conducted for this species. Therefore, it cannot be assessed against this criterion.

Therefore, it is suggested that Semi-collared Hawk (Accipiter collaris) be listed as Least Concern.We welcome any comments to the proposed listing.

Please note that this topic is not designed to be a general discussion about the ecology of the species, rather a discussion of the species’ Red List status. Therefore, please make sure your comments are relevant to the species’ Red List status and the information requested. By submitting a comment, you confirm that you agree to the Comment Policy.

*Bird generation lengths are estimated using the methodology of Bird et al. (2020), as applied to parameter values updated for use in each IUCN Red List for birds reassessment cycle. Values used for the current assessment are available on request. We encourage people to contact us with additional or improved values for the following parameters; adult survival (true survival accounting for dispersal derived from an apparently stable population); mean age at first breeding; and maximum longevity (i.e. the biological maximum, hence values from captive individuals are acceptable).

An information booklet on the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here and the Red List Criteria Summary Sheet can be downloaded here. Detailed guidance on IUCN Red List terms and definitions and the application of the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here.


Angulo, F.; Piana, R. P. 2011. Records of Semi-collared Hawk Accipiter collaris in northern Peru. Cotinga 33: 87-89.

Bierregaard, R. O. 1994. Neotropical Accipitridae (Hawks and Eagles). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 52-205. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Bierregaard, R. O.; Christie, D. A.; Kirwan, G. M.; Boesman, P. 2020. Semicollared Hawk (Accipiter collaris), version 1.0. Ithaca, NY, USA. (Accessed 05 March 2020).

Bird, J. P.; Martin, R.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Gilroy, J.; Burfield, I. J.; Garnett, S.; Symes, A.; Taylor, J.; Šekercioğlu, Ç.; Butchart, S. H. M. (2020). Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology online first view.

BirdLife International. 2020. Species factsheet: Accipiter collaris. (Accessed 05 March 2020).

Freile, J. F.; Santander, T.; Carrasco, L.; Cisneros-Heredia, D. F.; Guevara, E. A.; Sánchez-Nivicela, M.; Tinoco, B. A. 2018. Lista roja de las aves del Ecuador continental. Ministerio del Ambiente, Aves y Conservación, Comité Ecuatoriano de Rigistros Ornitológicos, Universidad del Azuay, Red Aves Ecuador, Universidad San Francicsco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee. 2019. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 14.

Parker, T.A., Stotz, D.F. and Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker, T.A. and Moskovits, D.K. (eds), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Renjifo, L.M.; Gómez, M.F.; Velásquez-Tibatá, J.; Amaya-Villarreal, A.M.; Kattan, G.H.; Amaya-Espinel, J.D.; Burbano-Girón, J. 2014. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia, Volumen I: bosques húmedos de los Andes y la costa Pacífica. Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana & Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.

SERFOR. 2018. Libro Rojo de la Fauna Silvestre Amenazada del Perú. Primera edición. SERFOR, Lima, Peru.

Thiollay, J.-M. 1994. Family Accipitridae (Hawks and Eagles). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 52-205. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

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6 Responses to Semi-collared Hawk (Accipiter collaris): revise global status?

  1. Renzo P. Piana PhD. says:

    Dear Sirs.
    Agreed with the proposed category for Semicollared Hawk. The species inhabits forest interiors and edges, including those degraded/opened for cattle grazing. I think ScH is more abundant than suspected and low records in Peru are a consequence of missed IDs, as it overlaps with very similar Bicolored Hawk (Accipiter bicolor) and Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus) plus the species can be difficult to detect given its size, coloration and behavior. Also, there are at least 10 more recent records (with photos) of the species along the east Andes in Peru, from S. Amazonas to Cusco, thus filling the distribution gaps reported by Angulo and Piana (2011) since they published their record in the Amazonas department in N Peru.

    • Fernando Angulo says:

      I agree with Dr. Piana. In recent years, the number of documented records is increasing along the east slope of the andes (Amazonas, Huanuco, Pasco, Ucayali, Junin). On a heavily birded area, the upper parts of the Manu road in Cuzco, there are 6 documented records between 2016-19 (a couple of dozens on not-documented) of the species. This shows that it is possible that the sepecies in naturally low-density, and the more observer are in the area, more records. I do agrre with the proposed change in category.

    • Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

      Thank you very much for this important information! We have updated the range map of the Semi-collared Hawk to include recent records along the eastern slope of the Andes. The map will be published as part of the Red List update in December 2020.

  2. Juan Freile says:

    I am afraid I partially disagree with previous comments.
    This species is sometimes seen in forest edges and adjacent disturbed areas, which might suggest that it tolerates some level of habitat disturbance; however, it is definitely a forest-based species for much of its annual and daily cycles (much more forest-based than, for example, Plain-breasted Hawk). A marginal tolerance to disturbed areas in a forest-dominated matrix should not be misperceived as permanent tolerance or even preference for disturbed areas. There is an observer-bias in interpreting habitat occupation by birds. We (observers) tend to visit more accessible, fairly disturbed areas. The fact that there are more records at present might relate to increasing observation/reporting activity.
    On the contrary, the species has a larger distribution than previously known and population declines might in fact be too slow to meet criteria. I suspect the population is in fact declining, due to habitat loss.

  3. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Many thanks to everyone who has contributed to this discussion. We greatly appreciate the time and effort invested by so many people in commenting. The window for consultation is now closed. We will analyse and interpret the new information and post a preliminary decision on this species’s Red List status on this page in early July.

    Thank you once again,
    BirdLife Red List Team

  4. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Preliminary proposal

    Based on available information, our preliminary proposal for the 2020 Red List would be to adopt the proposed classification outlined in the initial forum discussion.

    There is now a period for further comments until the final deadline in mid-July, after which the recommended categorisations will be put forward to IUCN.

    Please note that we will then only post final recommended categorisations on forum discussions where these differ from those in the initial proposal.

    The final 2020 Red List categories will be published on the BirdLife and IUCN websites in December 2020/January 2021, following further checking of information relevant to the assessments by both BirdLife and IUCN.

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