BirdLife species factsheet for Glittering Starfrontlet
Glittering Starfrontlet (Coeligena orina) is endemic to Colombia, where it occurs in a small range in the western Andes. It occurs in elfin forest, in the páramo-forest ecotone and in adjacent tall humid forest. Until recently, the population was feared to be very small, numbering less than 250 mature individuals. New information however suggests that this was a substantial underestimate, and the population is now placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals (Renjifo et al. 2014). The only potential threat known to the species is the loss and degradation of its habitat. Parts of the range are rich in mineral resources, and it feared that the area may be exploited by mining companies in the future (Renjifo et al. 2014).
Glittering Starfrontlet has been considered Critically Endangered under Criterion C2a(i) due to its presumably small population (BirdLife International 2020). However, the correction of the population size estimate and new information regarding the population trend suggest that this species may warrant a change in Red List status. Therefore, we have fully reviewed the species here against all Red List criteria.
Criterion A – Glittering Starfrontlet is threatened by habitat loss. Forest loss within the range has been negligible over the past ten years though (< 1%; Global Forest Watch 2020, see also Renjifo et al. 2014; one generation length being 2.4 years; Bird et al. 2020*). Nevertheless, habitat may be degraded in the future through the expansion of mining. Therefore tentatively, the species is suspected to undergo a slow decline in the future, the rate of which is likely below 10% over ten years. Glittering Starfrontlet therefore qualifies as Least Concern under Criterion A.
Criterion B – The Extent of Occurrence (EOO) for this species is 6,100 km2. The maximum Area of Occupancy (AOO), as calculated by a 4 km2 grid over the area of mapped range, is 1,140 km2. These values meet the threshold for listing as Vulnerable under Criterion B1 and B2. To be listed as threatened under these criteria does require at least two further conditions to be met though.
The species is thought to form four relatively large subpopulations and can thus not be considered severely fragmented (see IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee 2019). The most severe threat is the degradation and loss of its habitat. If mining activity increases, it is possible that large parts of the population may be severely impacted within a relatively short time. The number of locations** is therefore tentatively placed in the band 6-10, and condition a is met at the level of Vulnerable. Given the potential increase in mining activity in the future, habitat quality is projected to decline, and condition b(iii) is met. The species is not known to undergo extreme fluctuations, and thus subcriterion c is not met. Overall, Glittering Starfrontlet warrants listing as Vulnerable under Criterion B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii).
Criterion C – The population size is estimated at 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This meets the threshold for listing as Vulnerable under Criterion C. However, in order to do so, the species must meet further subcriteria.
The species is suspected to undergo a slow decline of < 10% in the future. A suspected decline however precludes listing as threatened under this criterion, so that the species can at most be listed as Near Threatened. The species is thought to form four subpopulations. Assuming that the true population size is closer to the lower end of the estimate, it is likely that no subpopulation contains more than 1,000 mature individuals. Glittering Starfrontlet is therefore considered Near Threatened, approaching the threshold for listing as threatened under Criterion C2a(i).
Criterion D – The population size and range are too large to warrant listing as threatened under Criterion D, and hence the species is listed as Least Concern under this criterion.
Criterion E – To the best of our knowledge, there has been no quantitative analysis of extinction risk conducted for this species. Therefore, it cannot be assessed against this criterion.
Therefore, it is suggested that Glittering Starfrontlet (Coeligena orina) be listed as Vulnerable under Criterion B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii). We welcome any comments to the proposed listing.
Please note that this topic is not designed to be a general discussion about the ecology of the species, rather a discussion of the species’ Red List status. Therefore, please make sure your comments are relevant to the species’ Red List status and the information requested. By submitting a comment, you confirm that you agree to the Comment Policy.
*Bird generation lengths are estimated using the methodology of Bird et al. (2020), as applied to parameter values updated for use in each IUCN Red List for birds reassessment cycle. Values used for the current assessment are available on request. We encourage people to contact us with additional or improved values for the following parameters; adult survival (true survival accounting for dispersal derived from an apparently stable population); mean age at first breeding; and maximum longevity (i.e. the biological maximum, hence values from captive individuals are acceptable).
**The term ‘location’ refers to a distinct area in which a single threatening event can rapidly affect all individuals of the taxon present, with the size of the location depending on the area covered by the threatening event. Where a taxon is affected by more than one threatening event, location should be defined by considering the most serious plausible threat (IUCN 2001, 2012).
An information booklet on the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here and the Red List Criteria Summary Sheet can be downloaded here. Detailed guidance on IUCN Red List terms and definitions and the application of the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here.
Bird, J. P.; Martin, R.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Gilroy, J.; Burfield, I. J.; Garnett, S.; Symes, A.; Taylor, J.; Šekercioğlu, Ç.; Butchart, S. H. M. (2020). Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology online first view.
BirdLife International. 2020. Species factsheet: Coelingena orina. http://www.birdlife.org (Accessed 24 April 2020).
Global Forest Watch. 2020. Interactive Forest Change Mapping Tool. http://www.globalforestwatch.org/ (Accessed 2 April 2020).
IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria.
IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee. 2019. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 14. http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.
Renjifo, L. M.; Gomez, M. F.; Velasquez-Tibata, J.; Amaya-Villarreal, A. M.; Kattan, G. H.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Burbano-Giron, J. 2014. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia, Volumen I: bosques humedos de los Andes y la costa Pacifica. Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.