Archived 2020 topic: Five-colored Barbet (Capito quinticolor): revise global status?

BirdLife species factsheet for Five-colored Barbet

Five-colored Barbet (Capito quinticolor) occurs in the lowlands and foothills of the western Andes from Colombia to north-western Ecuador. It inhabits a variety of habitats from wet forest to edges, secondary forest and disturbed habitats (Short and Horne 2020). Based on an observed density of 3-5 pairs/km2 in disturbed forest, an area of mapped range of c. 40,500 km2, and assuming that around 10% of the range are occupied, Five-colored Barbet may number 24,300-40,500 mature individuals. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the species is here placed in the band 20,000-49,999 mature individuals.

The only threat known to Five-colored Barbet is habitat loss. Forests within the range have been cleared for conversion into oil palm plantations, timber extraction and agriculture. In the past, habitat loss in the lowlands of north-western Ecuador amounted to 3.8% annually (O. Jahn in litt. 2020). Nevertheless, the species’s tolerance of converted habitats (Short and Horne 2020) and lower deforestation rates within the range in recent years (Tracewski et al. 2016, Global Forest Watch 2020) indicate that the species may be at lower risk than previously feared.

Five-colored Barbet is currently listed as Vulnerable under Criterion A2c+3c+4c. However, new information regarding trends in habitat availability suggests that the species may warrant a change in Red List status. Therefore, it will be re-assessed against all criteria:

Criterion A – The population trend has not been estimated directly. The only threat known to Five-colored Barbet is habitat loss; however, deforestation within the range has been negligible over the past ten years (c. 1%; Tracewski et al. 2016, Global Forest Watch 2020; one generation length being 3.2 years; Bird et al. 2020). The species appears to survive well in fragments of disturbed and secondary forest (O. Jahn in litt. 2009, Short and Horne 2020); therefore, forest loss is unlikely to drive population declines. In the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats, the species is assessed as stable and listed as Least Concern under Criterion A.

Criterion B – The Extent of Occurrence (EOO) for this species is 61,200 km2. This is too large to warrant listing as threatened under Criterion B1, and Five-colored Barbet qualifies for Least Concern under this criterion. The Area of Occupancy (AOO) has not been quantified according to IUCN guidelines (IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee 2019), and so the species cannot be assessed against Criterion B2.

Criterion C – The population of Five-colored Barbet is thought to number 20,000-49,999 mature individuals and assessed as stable. The species thus does not meet the threshold for listing as threatened under Criterion C and is considered Least Concern under this criterion.

Criterion D – The population size and range are too large to approach the threshold for listing as threatened under Criterion D. Therefore, Five-colored Barbet qualifies as Least Concern under this criterion.

Criterion E – To the best of our knowledge no quantitative analysis of extinction risk has been conducted for this species. Therefore, it cannot be assessed against this criterion.

Therefore, it is suggested that Five-colored Barbet (Capito quinticolor) be listed as Least Concern. We welcome any comments on the proposed listing.

Please note that this topic is not designed to be a general discussion about the ecology of the species, rather a discussion of its Red List status. Therefore, please make sure your comments are relevant to the discussion outlined in the topic. By submitting a comment, you confirm that you agree to the Comment Policy.

*Bird generation lengths are estimated using the methodology of Bird et al. (2020), as applied to parameter values updated for use in each IUCN Red List for birds reassessment cycle. Values used for the current assessment are available on request. We encourage people to contact us with additional or improved values for the following parameters; adult survival (true survival accounting for dispersal derived from an apparently stable population); mean age at first breeding; and maximum longevity (i.e. the biological maximum, hence values from captive individuals are acceptable).

An information booklet on the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here and the Red List Criteria Summary Sheet can be downloaded here. Detailed guidance on IUCN Red List terms and definitions and the application of the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here.

References

Bird, J. P.; Martin, R.; Akçakaya, H. R.; Gilroy, J.; Burfield, I. J.; Garnett, S.; Symes, A.; Taylor, J.; Šekercioğlu, Ç.; Butchart, S. H. M. (2020). Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology online first view.

Global Forest Watch. 2020. Interactive Forest Change Mapping Tool. http://www.globalforestwatch.org (Accessed 31 March 2020).

IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee. 2019. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categoreis and Criteria. Version 14. http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf.

Short, L. L.; Horne, J. F. M. 2020. Five-colored Barbet (Capito quinticolor), version 1.0. In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D. A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). Birds of the World. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.ficbar1.01 (Accessed 31 March 2020).

Tracewski, Ł.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Di Marco, M.; Ficetola, G. F.; Rondinini, C.; Symes, A.; Wheatley, H.; Beresford, A. E.; Buchanan, G. M. 2016. Toward quantification of the impact of 21st-century deforestation on the extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates. Conservation Biology 30: 1070-1079.

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14 Responses to Archived 2020 topic: Five-colored Barbet (Capito quinticolor): revise global status?

  1. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Global Forest Change data on tree cover loss up to 2019 have now been released and made available via Global Forest Watch. Based on these data, over ten years approximately 1.1% of tree cover with at least 30% canopy cover was lost from within the species’s range (Global Forest Watch 2020). This does not affect the above assessment under Criterion A.

  2. Copiado de / copied from: Alex Cortés, Juan Carlos Luna, Andrea Borrero, y Juan Lazaro Toro (2020) Evaluación de especies de aves amenazadas en Colombia / Evaluation of Threatened Birds Species in Colombia. Conservación Colombiana 27: 3-31.

    “Capito quinticolor está restringido a una franja estrecha de bosque de Choco de tierras bajas y estribaciones de la cordillera, principalmente por debajo de los 100 metros de altitud en los departamentos de Valle, Cauca y Nariño en Colombia y la provincia de Esmeraldas en el noroeste de Ecuador, un área que se extiende 460 km. Se han visto individuos hasta 500 m de altitud, pero el área más óptima para la especie está por debajo de los 100 metros. La especie depende de los bosques primarios, aunque se le ve regularmente en bosques secundarios avanzados altos, y bordes de bosques. La especie ha sido reportada solo 279 veces en eBird y se encontró principalmente en algunas áreas importantes (alrededor de Buenaventura, Valle, Tumaco, Nariño y adyacentes a San Lorenzo, Esmeralda).

    Instamos en tener precaución de incluir observaciones no confirmadas de la especie 200 km más adelante en el departamento de Chocó, ya que no hay documentación (por ejemplo, un solo avistamiento en el Parque Nacional Natural de Utria, versus más de 100 avistamientos del no tan diferente Capito maculicoronatus en la misma área). Es posible que ocurra la especie, pero para una extensión de rango tan importante, instamos a la necesidad de una foto o una grabación en cinta (la especie es vocal y puede ser fotografiada).

    El rango confirmado de especies EOO es de 7.020 km2 (bosque de tierras bajas por debajo de 100 m, excluyendo manglares) ha reportado una tasa de deforestación del 6% desde 2000 (Global Forest Watch). Si el EOO se extendiera a 500 m de elevación, el área solo aumentaría 20-30% a medida que los Andes se elevan tan bruscamente de la llanura de las tierras bajas. El AOO para esta especie es < 2,000 km2.

    Utilizando la misma densidad observada de 3-5 pares / km 2, el Capito quinticolor EOO puede numerar 21, 060 – 35 100 individuos maduros, pero el AOO podría ser de 6.000-10.000 individuos maduros.

    Es importante destacar que los bosques de tierras bajas de Capito quinticolor están bajo una fuerte presión y mal protegidos en Ecuador y Colombia. La extracción ilegal de oro a lo largo de los ríos y arroyos que fluyen de la Cordillera Occidental está alimentando una invasión de colonos que abusan de todos los recursos naturales y ayudando a colonizar áreas que hasta hace poco eran resguardos indígenas. Las poblaciones afrocolombianas también están siendo influenciadas y abusadas por las compañías ilegales de extracción de oro que pueden tener conexiones con ex guerrilleros o fuerzas paramilitares. La expansión de las plantaciones africanas de palma de aceite, la tala ilegal la presencia de cultivos ilícitos y la expansión agrícola están aumentando rápidamente ya que esta área está en gran medida desprotegida. Si bien la especie podría soportar habitas de bosque secundario alto, esas áreas se están convirtiendo rápidamente en plantaciones y otros usos. Además, la expansión de las plantaciones ilícitas de coca en las tierras bajas del Chocó continúa, lo que acelera la deforestación e impulsa la frontera agrícola.

    Nosotros evaluamos la siguiente:

    Criterio A: con una pérdida de cobertura forestal sostenida y acelerada calculada en la especie EOO, la disminución garantizaría su inclusión como Vulnerable en el Criterio A 3 c, d + A4c.

    Criterio B – El EOO para esta especie es 7,020 km 2 y AOO de <2,000 km2 justificaría la inclusión como Vulnerable bajo el Criterio B1 + B2b ( ii, iii ).

    Criterio C : se cree que la población de AOO de Capito quinticolor es de 6,000-10,000 individuos maduros y se considera que está disminuyendo debido a la pérdida de hábitat. La especie se reúnen por lo tanto es el umbral en los registros como vulnerable según el criterio C 1.

    Criterio D : la especie califica como Preocupación Menor según este criterio.

    ProAves recomienda que Capito quinticolor continúe figurando como Vulnerable en los Criterios A3 c, d + A4c, B1 + B2b ( ii, iii ), C1. "

  3. Copiado de / copied from: Alex Cortés, Juan Carlos Luna, Andrea Borrero, y Juan Lazaro Toro (2020) Evaluación de especies de aves amenazadas en Colombia / Evaluation of Threatened Birds Species in Colombia. Conservación Colombiana 27: 3-31.

    “Capito quinticolor is restricted to a narrow swath of lowland/foothill Choco forest primarily below 100 meter elevation in the departments of Valle, Cauca and Nariño in Colombia and Esmeraldas province in NW Ecuador, an area that extends 460 km. Individuals have been seen up to 500 m elevation, but the species optimal strongholds are below 100 meters. The species is dependent on primary forest although regularly seen in mature / tall secondary forest and on forest edges. The species has been reported just 279 times in eBird and primarily found at a few major areas (around Buenaventura, Valle, Tumaco, Nariño and adjacent San Lorenzo, Esmeralda).

    We urge caution on including unconfirmed signings of the species 200 km further in Choco department as there is no documentation (e.g. a single sighting in Utria NP versus over 100 sightings of the not so different Capito maculicoronatus in the same area). It is possible the species occurs, but we urge the need for a photo or tape-recording (the species is vocal and can be photographed) for such an important range extension.

    The species confirmed range EOO is 7,020 km2 (lowland forest below 100 m, excluding mangroves) has reported a 6% deforestation rate since 2000 (Global Forest Watch). If the EOO was extended to 500 m elevation the area would only increase 20-30% as the Andes rises so sharply off the lowland plain. The AOO for this species is <2,000 km2.

    Using the same observed density of 3-5 pairs/km2, the Capito quinticolor EOO may number 21,060-35,100 mature individuals, but the AOO may number 6,000-10,000 mature individuals.

    Importantly, the lowland forests of Five-colored Barbet are under immense pressure and poorly protected in Ecuador and Colombia. Illegal gold-mining along the rivers and streams that flow out of the Western Cordillera are fueling an invasion of colonists that abuse all natural resources and helping colonize areas that were until recently indigenous reserves. Afro-Colombia populations are also being influenced and abused by illegal gold-mining companies that may have connections to former guerrilla or paramilitary forces. The expansion of African oil palm plantations, illegal logging and agriculture expansion is rising quickly as this area is largely unprotected. While the species occurs in tall secondary forest, those area are rapidly being converted to plantations and other uses. Also, the expansion of illicit coca plantations in the Choco lowlands is continuing which is accelerating deforestation and pushing forward the agriculture frontier.

    We assessed the following:

    Criterion A – With sustained and accelerating forest cover loss calculated in the species EOO the decline would warrant it being listed as Vulnerable under Criterion A3c,d+A4c.

    Criterion B – The EOO for this species is 7,020 km2 and AOO of <2,000 km2 would warrant listing as Vulnerable under Criterion B1+B2b(ii,iii).

    Criterion C – The AOO population of Capito quinticolor is thought to number 6,000-10,000 mature individuals and assessed as declining because of habitat loss. The species thus meets the threshold for listing as Vulnerable under Criterion C1.

    Criterion D – The species qualifies as Least Concern under this criterion.

    ProAves recommends that Capito quinticolor continue to be listed as Vulnerable under Criteria A3c,d+A4c, B1+B2b(ii,iii),C1."

  4. I disagree with the proposal to move the species to Least Concern. At least, it has to be retained in Near-threatened.

    Deforestation rates in northwestern Ecuador have been 20% since 2000 (Finer & Mamani 2019). This would equate to 10% reduction in population size over three generations. The effective reduction of population size is much more severe. Most of the forest that had been cleared is lowland forest. Very little natural forest remains below 100 m (Finer & Mamani 2019). Only 32% of forest cover (independent of forest quality) remain below 400 m in Ecuador. Thus, the population decline is much more severe than 10%.
    There are spikes of deforestation in its range in Colombia since the peace treaty with FARC. Such data are available and need to be analysed prior to a change in threat category.

    • Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

      Thank you very much for your comment. Data published by Finer and Mamani (2019) do not allow a quantification of forest loss over three generations within the range of the species; therefore we need to consult other sources like Global Forest Watch, who give detailed rates for tree cover loss up until 2019.

  5. Dear reviewers,

    I disagree to down-list the Five-colored Barbet, without robust knowledge about its population size in Ecuador. I also strongly disagree with the statement ¨deforestation within the range has been negligible over the past ten years¨ in the discussion of criterion A.

    Five-colored Barbet is a typical Chocó species. No data show that the population size of this species is stable, and heavy deforestation rates in the Chocó rainforest most likely resulted in a dramatic loss of habitat for the species. The Chocó rainforest one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world (CEPF, 2015). A recent analysis made by the Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project (MAAP), reveals that 61 percent (4.4 million acres) of the Ecuadorian Chocó have been deforested and one-fifth of that loss (902,000 acres) occurred between 2000 and 2018 (Fagua and Ramsey 2019). The data showed almost two times higher deforestation in the Chocó during 2010-2015 compared with the period of 2002-2010. Of the total amount of forest loss, 68% (2,965,26 acres) occurred in lowland Chocó rainforest below 400 meters above sea level (Finer and Mamani 2019). Given this strong fragmentation, and a generation length of 8.5 years, the rate of decline is >30% over three generations. This warrants the threat status of the Five-colored Barbet as Vulnerable under criterion A2acd.

    Finally, the updated Red List of Ecuadorian birds was published in 2019, assessing all Ecuadorian species against IUCN criteria. The Five-colored Barbet was classified as Endangered under A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v) (Freile et al. 2019).

    More information is needed before down-listing the species.

    CEPF (2015): Ecosystem Profile: The Tropical Andes Biodiversity Hotspot. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund.

    Fagua JC, Ramsey RD. 2019. Geospatial modeling of land cover change in the Chocó-Darien global ecoregion of South America; One of most biodiverse and rainy areas in the world. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0211324.

    Finer M, Mamani N. 2019. Saving the Ecuadorian Chocó. MAAP: 102.

    Freile, J. F., T. Santander G., L. Carrasco, D. F. Cisneros-Heredia, E. A. Guevara, M. Sánchez-Nivicela y B. A. Tinoco. (2019). Lista roja de las aves del Ecuador continental. Ministerio del Ambiente, Aves y Conservación, Comité Ecuatoriano de Registros Ornitológicos, Universidad del Azuay, Red Aves Ecuador y Universidad San Francisco de Quito. Quito, Ecuador

    • Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

      Thank you very much for your comment. BirdLife International is carrying out Red List assessments at the global scale; sub-global assessments may well differ from the global Red List due to the different spatial scale. The species’s distribution range in Ecuador is very small; for the global Red List we therefore need to consider rates of habitat loss throughout the global range. Data published by Finer and Mamani (2019) as well as by Fagua and Ramsey (2019) do not allow a quantification of forest loss over three generations within the range; therefore we need to consult other sources like Global Forest Watch, who give detailed rates for tree cover loss up until 2019. Please note that the generation length of the Five-colored Barbet is 3.2 years (see Bird et al. 2020).

  6. Juan Freile says:

    In Ecuador, this barbet relies on forest cover. It is actually more the forest-based barbet species in Ecuador. Even though it can occur in forest edges and adjacent disturbed land, it does not occupy heavily degraded areas away from forest. Oil palm plantations and timber extraction have devastated about 50% of potential habitat for the species in Ecuador, where it is classified as EN. We estimated a population decline to be higher than 50% considering recent rates of forest loss within Ecuador. It seems likely that estimates for its Colombian range are less dramatic, but those of Tracewski et al are overly mild for what is actually going on in the Choco region (see your Finer & Mamani reference). It is misleading to consider population trend as stable. It is certainly declining along with forest loss; possibly not to reach VU or EN global thresholds, but not stable at all.
    The species is classified as NT in Colombia (A4c) and EN in Ecuador (see Renjifo et al. Red Data Book). It is misleading to change its global status to LC contra detailed assessments in both countries it inhabits.
    I see a worrying trend in BirdLife data to underestimate the situation in the Pacific lowlands of northern South America, especially when compared to the Amazon. Several Amazonian species were upgraded to threat categories using deforestation models that cannot be applied to the entire Amazon region. This recategorization includes “common” species that tolerate habitat disturbance is a higher degree than several Choco endemic species. An important difference is that Chocoan (and Tumbesian) endemics have small and restricted ranges, whereas some Amazonian species currently ranked as threatened (e.g., Patagioenas subvinacea). Overlooking (or neglecting) the conservation situation of the endemic Pacific forests of NW South America might derive in dramatic rates of population declines for many endemic species.
    I urge BirdLife to undertake a serious assessment of current and projected forest loss in the Choco region, and of current and projected forest degradation in the Tumbesian region.

    • Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

      Thank you very much for your comment. BirdLife International is carrying out Red List assessments at the global scale; sub-global assessments may well differ from the global Red List due to the different spatial scale. For the global Red List we therefore need to consider rates of habitat loss throughout the global range.

      Any Red List assessment is based on the best information available at the time of assessment. In 2012, the best information available for Amazonian species were published projections of habitat loss within the respective ranges. Since then updated estimates of forest loss in the Amazon have become available, with the Red List status adapted accordingly. We strongly encourage any plans for a similar assessment of forest loss and degradation for the Tumbes-Chocó region and look forward to seeing the results.

  7. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Many thanks to everyone who has contributed to this discussion. We greatly appreciate the time and effort invested by so many people in commenting. The window for consultation is now closed. We will analyse and interpret the new information and post a preliminary decision on this species’s Red List status on this page in early July.

    Thank you once again,
    BirdLife Red List Team

  8. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Preliminary proposal

    New information has allowed re-mapping the species’s range. Accounting for the unconfirmed presence in Chocó department and taking into account recent records in northern Ecuador, the EOO has been recalculated as 61,000 sqkm. Forest loss within the range amounts to 2.5% over the past ten years (per Global Forest Watch 2020), while 30,000 sqkm within the range are covered by forest. Assuming that only 10% of the available habitat are occupied (at a density of 3-5 pairs/sqkm, i.e. 6-10 mature individuals/sqkm), the global population would number 18,000-30,000 mature individuals.

    The species hence does not qualify for a threatened status under Criterion B. We can however precautionarily assume that forest degradation is substantially larger than forest loss, so that habitat would be lost at a rate of up to 20% over three generations. Furthermore, we assume that the true population size is closer to the lower end of the estimate, with all individuals belonging to the same subpopulation. With the suspected declines of up to 20% over ten years, the species could very precautionarily be considered to approach a threatened status under Criterion C.

    Based on available information, our preliminary proposal for the 2020 Red List would be to list Five-colored Barbet as Near Threatened, approaching the threshold for listing as threatened under Criterion C1+2a(ii).

    There is now a period for further comments until the final deadline in mid-July, after which the recommended categorisations will be put forward to IUCN.

    Please note that we will then only post final recommended categorisations on forum discussions where these differ from those in the initial proposal.

    The final 2020 Red List categories will be published on the BirdLife and IUCN websites in December 2020/January 2021, following further checking of information relevant to the assessments by both BirdLife and IUCN.

  9. Sara Lara says:

    I just write in English for the reviewer: I am very sorry reviewer, but my team say you are mistaken in considering this less than Vulnerable using criteria. There are some points why they say this:

    1) You are using Global Forest Watch data that is not reliable in the Choco because it is perpetually cloudy / rains so deforestation in neither seen nor reported. For this region, we recommend you adapt away from remote data to trust observer data (as noted by various people above).

    2) We thank you for removing unconfirmed Choco reports (400 km to the north of confirmed range), but we are confused how the EOO was recalculated from 61,200 km2 to 61,000 km2…just 200 km2 less? Using the minimum convex polygon calculated from GeoCat using 42 point location data in Colombia and Ecuador, we can not understand why the EOO is so great. Perhaps there may be an error with BirdLife data?

    3) Capito quinticolor overlaps with Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea in that they are both lowland forest Choco endemics. However, Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea range is at least three times larger (occurring from western Panama, through panama, across NW Colombia and down the entire western Colombia and western Ecuador) and at many more sites than quinticolor. So as a comparison, Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea is currently proposed as Vulnerable on this forum. This strikes us as inconsistent to then consider quinticolor less threatened when it is well documented to be much rarer, localized and reduced range.

    We believe the number of mature individuals is less than 10,000 and hope the EOO can be reviewed.

  10. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Thanks very much for your contribution to the reassessment of the Five-colored Barbet. We have reviewed your comment and have the following observations:

    1) GFW data can be very helpful in assessing rates of forest loss within distribution ranges, which you and your team are certainly aware of, having used it yourselves in your assessment. We agree that there are considerable shortcomings, in particular for the assessment of tree cover in premontane areas. GFW reports rates of forest loss of 2.5% over ten years; other sources report similar values: 1.38% over ten years per Renjifo et al. (2014) for the Colombian part of the range; c. 10% over ten years per Finer and Mamani (2019) for northwestern Ecuador (which however is not representative for the range of the Barbet, as we have explained above). Accounting for the additional impacts of forest degradation and fragmentation, we can precautionarily place the rate of decline in the band 1-19% over ten years.
    Observational data of the population trend would definitely be a much more reliable source of information for the assessment against Criterion A; we however are not aware that these exist for the Five-colored Barbet as none has been forthcoming during the Forum process. We would much appreciate if you could share these data with us.

    2) When removing the unconfirmed records from Chocó, it came to our attention that the range map needed additional adaptations, as the species had not been mapped as occurring in Esmeraldas province in northwestern Ecuador. We apologise; this has clearly been an omission from our side. The range map has been corrected now and will be published as part of the 2020 Red List update. The EOO, calculated as an MCP around the mapped range, is 61,000 sqkm (the difference to the previous, erroneous map is indeed negligible). We cannot understand why the EOO value that you kindly shared with us is so small. As we said in a previous email, we would be happy if you could share your map data with us; we would greatly appreciate the opportunity to review these to align the map. It will however not be possible for us to submit values for the EOO and/or AOO that are not congruent with the range map to IUCN.

    3) Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea is proposed for listing as Near Threatened.

  11. Red List Team (BirdLife International) says:

    Recommended categorisation to be put forward to IUCN

    The final categorisation for this species has not changed. Five-colored Barbet is recommended to be listed as Near Threatened, approaching the threshold for listing as threatened under Criterion C1+2a(ii).

    Many thanks for everyone who contributed to the 2020 GTB Forum process. The final 2020 Red List categories will be published on the BirdLife and IUCN websites in December 2020/January 2021, following further checking of information relevant to the assessments by both BirdLife and IUCN.

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