Cinnamon-breasted Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus) is known only from a few localities on remote and isolated mountain ranges in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, where it is rare to uncommon (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007). There are records from the southern Cordillera del Cóndor (Zamora-Chinchipe) and recently at Naytza (Morona-Santiago) (Ágreda et al. 2005), Ecuador; Cajamarca, Peru; and from the Cordillera de Colán (Amazonas) and Abra Patricia (San Martín), Peru (Ridgely and Tudor 1994).
The species is currently listed as Vulnerable under Criterion B1, but following the discovery of a new locality and the recalculation of the species’s Extent of Occurrence (EOO) according to IUCN Guidelines (IUCN 2017), the species no longer qualifies for listing as Vulnerable under this criterion. Hence, we are undertaking a review of the species’s Red List Category.
Our current information on the species’s conservation status will now be compared to all Red List Criteria.
Criterion A – We have no direct data on population trends. A recent analysis of forest loss data from 2000-2012 indicated that forest was lost within the species’s mapped range at a rate equivalent to 0.9% across three generations (10.8 years; Tracewski et al. 2016). The species’s range map has since been revised, with the newly-discovered locality at Naytza added (among other refinements). Nevertheless, we have no information to suggest that the rate of forest loss would be significantly different across the newly mapped distribution range. Assuming the population size is approximately proportional to the area of forest cover, the species’s population size is inferred to be stable, or slowly declining at a rate that does not approach the thresholds for listing as threatened under Criterion A.
Another study, which examined land cover change within the species’ mapped range and modelled the corresponding population sizes, estimated that the species’s population had declined by 12% across three generations (Santini et al. 2019). This study did not use the most recent version of the species’ range either, but the rate of decline does not approach the thresholds for listing as threatened under Criterion A. The species is therefore assessed as Least Concern under Criterion A.
Criterion B – The species’s Extent of Occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 33,000 km2. This does not approach the threshold for listing the species as threatened under Criterion B1. The species is therefore assessed as Least Concern under this criterion.The species’s area of occupancy (AOO) has not been quantified, but based on a 4km2 grid placed over the area of mapped range, must be smaller than 7,028km2. This does not approach the threshold for listing the species as threatened under Criterion B2.The species is assessed as Least Concern under Criterion B.
Criterion C – The population size of Cinnamon-breasted Tody-tyrant has not been directly estimated, but the species has been described as rare to uncommon. Based on the estimated area of forest with at least 50% canopy cover in the species’s mapped range in 2010 (5,670km2; Global Forest Watch 2019), using approximate population densities (27 and 0.2 mature individuals/km2) derived from the numbers of individuals and transect lengths mentioned in Agreda et al. (2005), and assuming that 40-60% of forest within the mapped range is occupied, the species’s population size is estimated to fall within the range 15,500-45,800 mature individuals.A study that modelled population size based on an estimated area of suitable habitat within the mapped range estimated the species’s population to be 37,222 mature individuals (Santini et al. 2019), although it should be noted that the recently-discovered population at Naytza was not included in the map used for this analysis.This range of population estimates would not meet or approach the thresholds for listing as threatened under Criterion C, so the species would be assessed as Least Concern under this Criterion.Should further evidence indicate that the population may be smaller than described above, further conditions would also need to be met for the species to be listed as threatened under Criterion C.
Based on the analyses of habitat change described above (Tracewski et al. 2016, Santini et al. 2019), the species’s population trend may be stable or declining slowly. We do not have direct population data from which to estimate the rate of decline, so the species cannot be assessed under Criterion C1.
The species has been recorded at several widely-spaced localities, so it is likely to have multiple subpopulations and probably doesn’t meet condition 2a(ii). The largest polygon in the mapped range comprises c.53% of the total area of the mapped range. Assuming that this represents the largest subpopulation and that population size is proportional to the area of mapped range, the largest subpopulation is unlikely to be smaller than 1,000 mature individuals, meaning that the species would not meet condition 2a(i).
There is no evidence that the species’s population size is undergoing extreme fluctuations so the species doesn’t meet condition b.
Unless further evidence suggests that the population size may be significant smaller than that described here, the species is assessed as Least Concern under Criterion C.
Criterion D – Based on the population estimates described above, the species’s population size does not meet or approach the threshold for Vulnerable under Criterion D. The species does not have a restricted area of occupancy of number of locations such that deforestation could drive the species to Critically Endangered or Extinct within a very short time. The species does not therefore meet the criteria for listing as Vulnerable under Criterion D2. The species is therefore assessed as Least Concern under Criterion D.
Criterion E – To the best of our knowledge no quantitative assessment of the probability of extinction has been conducted for this species, and so it cannot be assessed against this criterion.
Based on the above assessment, it is proposed to list Cinnamon-breasted Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus) as Least Concern. To allow us to achieve a clearer assessment of the species’s status, information is requested on the species’s likely population size and trends, as well as the species’s subpopulation structure.
Please note that this topic is not designed to be a general discussion about the ecology of the species, rather a discussion of the species’s Red List status. Therefore, please make sure your comments are about the proposed listing.
An information booklet on the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here and the Red List Criteria Summary Sheet can be downloaded here. Detailed guidance on IUCN Red List terms and definitions and the application of the Red List Categories and Criteria can be downloaded here.
Global Forest Watch (2019) Interactive Forest Change Mapping Tool. Available at: http://www.globalforestwatch.org/.
IUCN (2017) Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 13 March 2017. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/resources/redlistguidelines.
Ridgely, R. S. and Greenfield, P. J. (2001) The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Cornell University Press and Christopher Helm, Ithaca and London.
Ridgely, R. S. and Tudor, G. (1994) The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
Santini, L., Butchart, S. H., Rondinini, C., Benítez‐López, A., Hilbers, J. P., Schipper, A. M., Cengic, M., Tobias, J. A. and Huijbregts, M. A. (2019) Applying habitat and population‐density models to land‐cover time series to inform IUCN Red List assessments. Conservation Biology doi: 10.1111/cobi.13279.
Schulenberg, T. S., Stotz, D. F., Lane, D. F., O’Neill, J. P. and Parker III, T. A. (2007) Birds of Peru. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Tracewski, Ł.., Butchart, S. H. M., Di Marco, M., Ficetola, G .F., Rondinini, C., Symes, A., Wheatley, H., Beresford, A. E. & Buchanan, G. M. (2016) Toward quantification of the impact of 21st-century deforestation on the extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates. Conservation Biology 30: 1070-1079.