This discussion was first published as part of the 2018 Red List update. At the time a decision regarding its status was pended, but to enable potential reassessment of this species as part of the 2019 Red List update this post remains open and the date of posting has been updated.
The topic was originally written by Jose Rafael Garrido Lopez, but has received some slight edits to fit with the format and style of the forums site.
BirdLife species factsheet for Dupont’s Lark: http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/duponts-lark-chersophilus-duponti
Traditionally two subspecies of Dupont’s Lark are recognised (Suárez, 2010): Chersophilus duponti duponti living in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, Northern Algeria and Tunisia; and C. duponti margaritae, to which the southernmost populations of Algeria and Tunisia belong, as well as those of Libya and Egypt.
It is sparsely distributed and uncommon in most areas of its relatively small and fragmented range. Currently in Europe, the species is only found in continental Spain, which holds around 13% of the global population (Suárez et al. 2008). This Spanish population declined by more than 20% during 1970-1990 (Tucker and Heath 1994), but this rate of decline was thought to have slowed during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004), with the total Spanish population estimated at 13,000-15,000 pairs following surveys in 1988 (Garza and Suárez 1990). However, the original survey may have dramatically overestimated the size of the Spanish population, which may have comprised as few as 1,900 pairs in 1988 (Garza et al. 2003). The Spanish population was assessed as 2,200-2,800 pairs in 2009, covering an approximate area of 150,000 ha, with clear evidence of declines (Suárez 2010). In terms of structure, the southern Spanish subpopulations comprise fewer than 25 pairs, with the largest having only 12 pairs, and other subpopulations containing fewer than 3 pairs (Garrido & Ruiz 2016). There have been reports of extinctions of a high number of Spanish subpopulations in the last two decades (Suárez, 2010; Pérez-Granados et al., 2013; Pérez-Granados & López-Iborra 2013), and Pérez-Granados & López-Iborra (2014) found that the Spanish population declined by 70% between 1997 and 2013, with at least 40 subpopulations becoming extinct. Additionally, Garza & Traba (2016) found that 20 subpopulations went extinct between 2006 and 2015 from across its Spanish distribution.
A population viability analysis for part of the Spanish population showed an increased extinction risk in the short to medium term for more than half of the existing populations in that region (Laiolo et al. 2008). The populations with highest extinction risk are those that have the smallest number and highest degree of isolation, supported by the documented extinction during the last decade of such populations (Tella et al. 2005; Garza & Traba 2016). Fragmentation plays a more important role when the local populations are small and isolated, because in such situations they depend only on their population productivity (Laiolo et al. 2008), and rescue effect from neighbouring ‘source’ populations is limited (Laiolo & Tella 2008).
In Morocco, the species has a scattered and uneven distribution, and is not recorded in large areas of apparently suitable habitat; and population size estimates do vary considerably. For instance, recent work in Morocco calculated a population of 11,200-20,200 males (Suárez 2010), but El Agbani & Qninba (2011) estimated only 2,000-3,000 pairs. As well as declines noted in Spain, habitat loss has been recorded within the Moroccan breeding range, but its impact and overall trends are not well understood.
The number of birds in eastern populations is not known, but it appears likely that the global population numbers a minimum of 36,000 individuals and may be considerably higher than this (BirdLife International 2017).
As well as declines noted in Spain, habitat loss has been recorded within the Moroccan breeding range, but its impact and overall trends are not well understood. Also, climate change projections indicate loss of >70% potential area in Spain (Huntley et al. 2007; Araujo et al. 2011).
The species is currently globally listed as Near Threatened (BirdLife International 2017). The European Red List of Birds lists the species as Vulnerable in Europe (BirdLife International 2015) on the basis of its small declining population. Pérez-Granados & López-Iborra (2014) have proposed listing it as Endangered in Spain (the only European population) on the basis of a steep decline that had not been quantified when the European Red List was compiled.
Although only around 13% of the species’ global population occurs in Europe and globally its status depends on trends in NW Africa, where the species has not been well studied, moderately rapid declines seems to have occurred in some areas of Morocco. If it is now declining overall at a similar rate as in Iberia, then it may qualify for uplisting to Vulnerable under criterion A. However, this would require information from throughout its African range. Therefore, to reassess its global status, we request any information about the species’ current population status and trends in its African range.
Araujo, M. B.; Guilhaumon, F.; Neto, D. R.; Pozo, I.; Calamaestra, R. 2011. Impactos, Vulnerabilidad y Adaptación al Cambio Climático de la Biodiversidad Española. 2 Fauna de Vertebrados. Dirección General de Medio Natural y Política Forestal. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino. Madrid, 640 pages.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/info/euroredlist.
BirdLife International. 2017. Species factsheet: Chersophilus duponti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/11/2017.
El Agbani, M. A.; Qninba, A. 2011. Les oiseaux d’intérêt patrimonial au Maroc. Publications du Grepom nº3.
Garrido, J. R.; Ruiz, G. 2016. Programa de Emergencias, Control Epidemiológico y Seguimiento de Fauna Silvestre de Andalucía. Seguimiento de Aves Terrestres. Reproducción de 2015. Informe Regional. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio, Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla. Downloaded from http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/portal_web/web/temas_ambientales/biodiversidad/2_seguimiento/seguimiento_de_aves_terrestres/quieres_saber_mas/Avesterrestres_Reprod_publico_2015.pdf.
Garza, V.; Suárez, F. 1990. Distribution, population and habitat selection of Dupont’s Lark Chersophilus duponti on the Iberian Peninsula. Ardeola 37: 3-12.
Garza, V.; Traba, J.; Suárez, F. 2003. Is the European population of Dupont’s Lark Chersophilus duponti adequately estimated? Bird Study 50: 309-311.
Garza, V.; Traba, J. 2016. El fantasma del páramo. Última llamada para la alondra ricotí: retos para la conservación de una especie amenazada. Quercus 359: 24-33.
Huntley, B.; Green, R. E.; Collingham, Y. C.; Willis, S. G. 2007. A climatic atlas of European breeding birds. Durham University, The RSPB and Lynx Editions, Barcelona.
Laiolo, P.; Tella, J. L. 2008. Social determinants of songbird vocal activity and implications for the persistence of small populations. Animal Conservation 11(5): 433-441.
Laiolo, P.; Vögeli, M.; Serrano, D.; Tella, J. L. 2008. Song diversity predicts population viability in fragmented populations of birds. PLoS ONE 3: e1822. doi:10.
Pérez-Granados, C.; López-Iborra, G. M. 2013. Census of breeding birds and population trends of the Dupont´s lark Chersophilus duponti in eastern Spain. Ardeola 60(1): 143-150.
Pérez-Granados, C.; Noguerales, V.; Serrano-Davies, E. 2013. Alondra ricotí: ¿última baza en la provincia de Toledo? Quercus 329: 64-65.
Pérez-Granados, C.; López-Iborra, G. M. 2014. ¿Por qué la alondra ricotí debe catalogarse como “En peligro de Extinción”? Quercus 337: 18–25.
Suárez, F. (ed.). 2010. La alondra ricotí (Chersophilus duponti). Dirección General para la Biodiversidad. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. Madrid.
Suárez F.; Hernández J.; Oñate, J. J.; Garza V.; Hervás, I.; Viñuela, J.; Calero-Riestra M.; García J. T.; Pérez-Tris J. 2008. La alondra ricotí en el Norte de África. Quercus 263: 26-34.
Tella, J. L.; Vögelli, M.; Serrano, D.; Carrete, M. 2005. Current status of the threatened Dupont’s lark Chersophilus duponti in Spain: overestimation, decline, and extinction of local populations. Oryx 39: 90-94.
Tucker, G. M.; Heath, M. F. 1994. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.