BirdLife species factsheet for Damara Tern: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3282
Damara Tern (Sternula balaenarum) breeds along the coast of southern Angola, Namibia and South Africa (Crawford & Simmons 1997, Simmons 2010, Braby 2011). A total of 70 known breeding colonies are found across its breeding range, of which 56 colonies (87% to 93% of the breeding population) occur in the expansive Namib Desert coastline of Namibia.
Since 2004, Damara Tern has been considered Near Threatened based on the moderately small population of 13,500 mature individuals estimated by Simmons et al. (1998). However, a more recent comprehensive review of the species’ population status estimates the global population to number up to 5,730 breeding individuals (Braby 2011). Although it has been suggested that Simmons et al. (1998) may have overestimated the number of mature individuals, the continuing demand on Namibia’s beaches by off-road vehicles, the diamond mining and the residential development is currently impacting the population (three colonies extinct and six declining) and will probably impact most colonies in the future (Red Data Book for Namibia, 2015).
In such a context, the updated global population of <10,000 individuals, inferred to be undergoing a continuing population decline and assumed to form a single subpopulation, appear to fulfil the IUCN criteria for the Damara Tern to be uplisted to Vulnerable under criterion C2a(ii).
Any comments on the proposed uplisting are welcome.
Braby J. 2011. The conservation and biology of the Damara Tern in Namibia. PhD Thesis, University of Cape Town.
Crawford, R.J.M & Simmons, R.E. (1997) Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum. In: Harrison, J.A., Allan, D.G., Underhill, L.G., Herremans, M., Tree, A.J., Parker, V. & Brown, C.J. (eds) The atlas of southern African birds. Vol. 1 : Non-passerines: 480-481. Birdlife South Africa, Johannesburg
Simmons, R. E.; Cordes, I.; Braby, R. 1998. Latitudinal trends, population size and habitat preferences of the Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum on Namibia’s desert coast. Ibis 140: 439-445.
Simmons, R. E. 2010. First breeding records for Damara Terns and density of other shorebirds along Angola’s Namib Desert coast. Ostrich 81(1): 19-23.
Simmons R.E.; Braby R.J.; Braby S.J. (2015). Red Data Book for Namibia. Damara Tern, Sternula balaenarum (Sterna balaenarum). 91-95.